, Volume 131, Issue 2, pp 107-114

Intensive hemodialysis and hemoperfusion treatment of Amanita mushroom poisoning

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Abstract

Over a period of fifteen years, 41 patients including 23 males and 18 females with Amanita mushroom poisoning were treated at the University Hospital of Lund, Sweden. The intensity of poisoning was graded according to serum transaminase elevations and prothrombin time reductions. Severity was mild in 16 patients (Group A), moderate in 14 (Group B) and severe in 11 (Group C). Members of Group C reported shorter latency periods before the onset of symptoms, (10±1 hours,p<0.05) and longer delays in treatment, (34±4 hours), than did the other patients. Intensive treatment was begun before the results of urine amatoxin assays were reported. Treatment consisted of: fluid and electrolyte replacement, oral activated charcoal and lactulose, IV penicillin, combined hemodialysis and hemoperfusion in two 8 hour sessions, some received IV thioctic acid, others IV silibinin, all received a special diet. This combination of treatment modalities was used to accelerate the elimination of amatoxin from the patients' bodies. The longest period of hospitalization, 13±2 days, was required by the patients of Group C (p<0.01). All patients improved and were discharged from the hospital asymptomatic. No sequelae were later reported for the majority of those moderately and severely poisoned. We have concluded that intensive combined treatment applied in these cases is effective in relieving patients with both moderate and severe amanitin poisoning.