, Volume 83, Issue 3, pp 614-623

The Darfur Dome, western Sudan: the product of a subcontinental mantle plume

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Abstract

Field investigations, K-Ar age determinations and chemical data were used to describe the development of an intraplate volcanic province, the Darfur Dome, Sudan. Magmatism started 36 Ma ago at a small subvolcanic complex (Jebel Kussa) in the center of the dome and was active in the same area between 26 and 23 Ma. Two major volcanic fields (Marra Mountains and Tagabo Hills) developed between 16 and 10 Ma. Volcanism started again at 6.8 Ma with a third volcanic field (Meidob Hills) and at 4.3 Ma in the Marra Mountains and with the reactivation of the center. Activity then continued until the late Quaternary. Having started in the center of the Darfur Dome, volcanism moved in 36 Ma 200 km towards the NNE and 100 km SSW No essential difference in the alkaline magma types (basanitic to phonolitic-trachytic, with different amounts of assimilation of crustal material) in the different fields, was observed. Magmatism is thought to have been produced by a rising mantle plume and volcanism was triggered by stress resolution along the Central African Fault Zone.