Fitness and the risk of illness and “spectrum disorder” in offspring, parents, and siblings
- Kenneth S. Kendler
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
As shown by Essen-Möller [(1955).Acta Genet. 5:334–342] and Risch [(1983).Behav. Genet. 13:441–451], the effect of a disorder on fitness can substantially influence the risk of illness in relatives. This report expands on previous treatments by examining (1) the impact of fitness on the risk for illness and “spectrum disorder” in offspring, parents, and siblings as a function of the fitness of ill and spectrum individuals and (2) the effect on the risk of illness in relatives where fitness is related to the severity of illness. When fitness is the same for all affected individuals, decreasing fitness has little effect on the risk of spectrum or illness in offspring, diminishes rates of illness but increases rates of spectrum in parents, and diminishes rates of both illness and spectrum in siblings. When inversely correlated with severity of illness, fitness effects on risk of illness and spectrum in offspring can be nontrivial. Furthermore, as the fitness of the severe form of illness decreases, the risk in parents decreases for the severe form but increases for the mild form. For a trait with a substantial effect on fitness, misleading results may be produced by model fitting with risk data from relatives unless the pattern of fitness of spectrum, mildly affected, and severely affected individuals is taken into account.
- Baron, M. (1982). Genetic models of schizophrenia.Acta Psychiat. Scand. 65:263–275.
- East, E. M. (1910). A Mendelian interpretation of variation that is apparently continuous.Am. Nat. 44:65–82.
- Essen-Möller, E. (1955). The calculation of morbid risk in parents of index cases, as applied to a family sample of schizophrenics.Acta Genet. 5:334–342.
- Haverkamp, F., Propping, P., and Hilger, T. (1982). Is there an increase of reproduction rates in schizophrenics? I. Critical review of the literature.Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr. 232:439–450.
- Johnson, C. (1976).Introduction to Natural Selection, University Park Press, Baltimore, pp. 163–184.
- Kallmann, F. J. (1938).The Genetics of Schizophrenia, J. S. Augustin, New York.
- Kendler, K. S., and Kidd, K. K. (1986). Recurrence risks in an oligogenic threshold model: The effect of alterations in allele frequency.Ann. Hum. Genet. 50:83–91.
- Kidd, K. K., and Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (1973). An analysis of the genetics of schizophrenia.Soc. Biol. 20:254–265.
- McGue, M., Gottesman, I. I., and Rao, D. C. (1983). The transmission of schizophrenia under a multifactorial threshold model.Am. J. Hum. Genet. 35:1161–1178.
- O'Rourke, D. H., Gottesman, I. I., Suarez, B. K., Rice, J., and Reich, T. (1982). Refutation of the generalized single-locus model for the etiology of schizophrenia.Am. J. Hum. Genet. 34:630–649.
- Reed, S. C., Hartley, C., Anderson, V. E., Phillips, V. P., and Johnson, N. A. (1973).The Psychoses: Family Studies, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 156–157.
- Reich, T., James, J. W., and Morris, C. A. (1972). The use of multiple thresholds in determining the mode of transmission of semi-continuous traits.Ann. Hum. Genet. 36:163–183.
- Risch, N. (1983). Estimating morbidity risks in relatives: The effect of reduced fertility.Behav. Genet. 5:441–451.
- Turelli, M. (1984). Heritable genetic variation via mutation-selection balance: Lerch's zeta meets the abdominal bristle.Theoret. Pop. Biol. 25:138–193.
- Fitness and the risk of illness and “spectrum disorder” in offspring, parents, and siblings
Volume 16, Issue 4 , pp 417-431
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- fertility effects
- morbidity risks
- genetic modeling
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Departments of Psychiatry and Human Genetics, Medical College of Virginia, P.O. Box 710, 23298, Richmond, Virginia