Dyslexia in 47,XXXY boys identified at birth
- Cite this article as:
- Bender, B.G., Puck, M.H., Salbenblatt, J.A. et al. Behav Genet (1986) 16: 343. doi:10.1007/BF01071315
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The 47, XXY karyotype has been associated with diminished language skills in the presence of average intelligence, but specific deficits in cognitive abilities have not been clearly and consistently established. The present study examined cognitive skills in 14 unselected 47,XXY boys (ages 8 to 18 years) and 14 euploid control boys matched for age and socioeconomic status. No significant differences were found on measures of intelligence, perception, and language, although mean score trends suggested mildly diminished skills in these areas. The 47,XXY group demonstrated significantly poorer auditory short-term memory and reading skills. One-half of the propositi exhibited a common constellation of deficits suggesting that their karyotype may represent a risk factor for a language-based dyslexia with primary features including deficits in memory and speed of processing. Small sample size necessitates caution in making generalizations which await verification from other studies of unselected 47,XXY boys. Possible biological mechanisms responsible for neurocognitive variations in children with sex chromosome anomalies have been hypothesized, but evidence for their existence remains elusive.