, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 519-524

A third source of developmental differences

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An illustrative list is presented of human and animal studies which each point to the existence of a third source, in addition to genetic and environmental factors, underlying phenotypic differences in development. It is argued that this third source may consist of nonlinear epigenetic processes that can create variability at all phenotypical-somatic and behavioral-levels. In a quantitative genetic analysis with human subjects, these processes are confounded with within-family environmental influences. A preliminary model to quantify these influences is introduced.