, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 291-334

Influence of food and diet on gastrointestinal drug absorption: A review

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The literature concerning the influence of food, and also fluid volumes, on drug absorption is reviewed. In most cases, the absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is reduced or delayed by food. However, some drugs are unaffected by food, while the absorption of a small number of drugs is increased. Observed effects of food on drug absorption are the net result of various factors, including the influence of food on gastrointestinal physiology and also physicochemical interactions between drugs, drug dosage forms, and dietary components. The intensity of food-drug interactions may be influenced by the type of food and by the time interval between eating and drug administration. Large coadministered fluid volumes tend to promote drug absorption. The clinical significance of changes in drug bioavailability due to these factors is discussed.