Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 355–382

The acute oral toxicity, repellency, and hazard potential of 998 chemicals to one or more species of wild and domestic birds

  • E. W. SchaferJr.
  • W. A. BowlesJr.
  • J. Hurlbut
Article

DOI: 10.1007/BF01059413

Cite this article as:
Schafer, E.W., Bowles, W.A. & Hurlbut, J. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1983) 12: 355. doi:10.1007/BF01059413

Abstract

The acute oral toxicity, repellency, and hazard potential of 998 chemicals to one or more of 68 species of wild and domestic birds was determined by standardized testing procedures. Red winged blackbirds were the most sensitive of the bird species tested on a large number of chemicals, and an index based on redwing toxicity and repellency may provide an appropriate indication of the probability of acute avian poisoning episodes. Avian repellency and toxicity were not positively correlated (i.e. toxicity varied independently with repellency).

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. W. SchaferJr.
    • 2
  • W. A. BowlesJr.
    • 2
  • J. Hurlbut
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMetropolitan State CollegeDenver
  2. 2.Denver Federal CenterU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildlife Research CenterDenver