Sources of mortality for a cynipid gall-wasp (Dryocosmus dubiosus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)): The importance of the Tannin/Fungus interaction
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- Taper, M.L., Zimmerman, E.M. & Case, T.J. Oecologia (1986) 68: 437. doi:10.1007/BF01036752
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Emergence success was determined for 1300 galls of the cynipid waspDryocosmus dubiosus. Galls were collected throughout a single host tree (a California coast live oakQuercus agrifolia). Each gall was reared individually in small gelatin capsules. For each gall data was recorded on 17 parameters characterizing hyperparasitism, fungal infestation, leaf tannin levels, inter- and intraspecific competition, and spatial position within the tree. Using contingency table analysis and logistic regression, we determined that the most significant factors influencing the success ofD. dubiosus galls are 1) fungal infestation and 2) chalcid hyperparasitism, both having negative effects. Of the factors investigated we found that leaf tannin level had the strongest influence on the degree of fungal infestation. Fungal infestation, in turn, is lowest in regions of high leaf tannins.