, Volume 15, Issue 10, pp 2465-2483

Volatiles released from individual spruce bark beetle entrance holes Quantitative variations during the first week of attack


Volatiles released from individual entrance holes of eight spruce bark beetles (Ips typographus) were collected during the first week of attack on a resistant host tree. In order to quantify the release of the highly volatile 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB) from attacking males, a new method was developed with deuterated quantification standard released at the time of collection. The amounts of collected volatiles, as analyzed by GC and GC-MS, showed a large variation between individual holes and also between subsequent entrainments from the same hole. Most of the quantified compounds on the average have two maxima, with a pronounced intervening depression. The amounts of releasedcis-verbenol (cV) increased five times during the first two days, while the amounts of MB were consistently high. The attacked spruce tree was not taken by the beetles, and the average amounts of the two aggregation pheromone components, MB and cV, increased again after the first maxima. The first peak of oxygenated monoterpene, released in the beginning of the attack containing α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, bornyl acetate,trans-pinocarveol, and verbenone, was possibly due to spontaneous oxidation of monoterpene hydrocarbons from the tree. Microorganisms established in the gallery wall phloem probably participated in the production of oxygenated monoterpenes during the second increase.

Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).