Defensive secretion of the carabid beetle Pasimachus subsulcatus
Received: 11 April 1988 Accepted: 08 August 1988 DOI:
Cite this article as: Davidson, B.S., Eisner, T., Witz, B. et al. J Chem Ecol (1989) 15: 1689. doi:10.1007/BF01012258 Abstract
The defensive secretion of the carabid beetle
Pasimachus subsulcatus is a concentrated solution (up to 90%) of carboxylic acids, amounting to about 1% of body mass. It contains three major components (methacrylic, tiglic, and angelic acids) and four minor components (isobutyric, 2-methyl-butyric, isovaleric, and senecioic acids). In the single population of this large flightless beetle that was examined, the relative ratio of acidic components was remarkably constant from individual to individual. Key words Defensive secretion aliphatic acids beetle Coleoptera Carabidae Pasimachus subsulcatus carboxylic acids
Report No. 87 of the series Defense Mechanisms of Arthropods; No. 86 is Dussourd, D., et al.,
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 5992 (1988). References
Blum, M.S. 1981. Chemical Defenses of Arthropods. Academic Press, New York.
Buckles, R.E., and Mock, G.V. 1950. The preparation of tiglic and angelic acids esters. J. Org. Chem. 15:680–683.
Forsyth, D.J. 1972. The structure of the pygidial defence glands of Carabidae (Coleoptera). Trans. Zool. Soc. London 32(4):249–309.
Heller, S.R., and Milne, G.W.A. (eds.). 1978. EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Data Base. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Kanehisa, K., and Kawazu, K. 1982. Fatty acid components of the defensive substances in acidsecreting carabid beetles. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 17:460–466.
McCullough, T. 1969. Chemical analysis of the scent fluid of Pasimachus californieus and P. duplicatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 62:1492–1493.
McCullough, T. 1972. Analysis of the defensive scent fluid of Pasimachus elongatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 65:772.
Pouchert, C.J., and Campbell, J.R. (eds.). 1974. The Aldrich Library of NMR Spectra. Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Schildknecht, H., and Weis, K.H. 1962. Die Abwehrstoffe einiger Carabiden, insbesondere von Abax ater. Z. Naturforsch., 17B:439–448.
Wray, J. 1670. Concerning some un-common observations and experiments made with an acid juyce to be found in ants. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B5:2063–2081. Copyright information
© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989