International Journal of Computer & Information Sciences

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 341–356

Rough sets

  • Zdzisław Pawlak

DOI: 10.1007/BF01001956

Cite this article as:
Pawlak, Z. International Journal of Computer and Information Sciences (1982) 11: 341. doi:10.1007/BF01001956


We investigate in this paper approximate operations on sets, approximate equality of sets, and approximate inclusion of sets. The presented approach may be considered as an alternative to fuzzy sets theory and tolerance theory. Some applications are outlined.

Key words

Artificial intelligenceautomatic classificationcluster analysisfuzzy setsinductive reasoninglearning algorithmsmeasurement theorypattern recognitiontolerance theory

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zdzisław Pawlak
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Computer SciencesPolish Academy of SciencesWarsaw