, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 201-225

Discourse on the development of EEG diagnostics and biofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders

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This article presents a review of work that my colleagues and I have been doing during the past 15 years developing a rationale for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treatment of ADHD employing EEG biofeedback techniques. The article first briefly reviews the history of research and theory for understanding ADHD and then deals with the development of EEG and event-related potential (ERP) assessment paradigms and treatment protocols for this disorder, including our work and that of others who have replicated our results. Illustrative material from our current research and child case studies is included. Suggestions for future experimental and clinical work in this area are presented and theoretical issues involving the understanding of the neurophysiological and neurological basis of ADHD are discussed.

Over the years, many people have been involved both in my laboratory and at Southeastern Biofeedback Institute working with me in developing this area; I wish to acknowledge some of them. They are specifically Dr. Margaret Shouse and Dr. Chris Mann, who have been involved in the initial and recent stages of my research; Ms. Jennifer Samples, who has worked with us in the Institute for many years and has helped us in training many of the children that have benefited from EEG biofeedback. I would especially wish to acknowledge the skill and dedication of Judith O. Lubar, of Southeastern Biofeedback Institute, who has worked with me clinically in terms of developing treatment protocols for ADHD biofeedback and who has trained many of the children who have successfully completed EEG Biofeedback. I would like to acknowledge the generous help of the Lexicor Corporation of Boulder, Colorado who have provided support and instrumentation for recent studies in this area. Mr. Rod Bunn and Mr. Robert Muenchen, who have provided computer support, programming, and statistical assistance in evaluating data in various studies, are gratefully acknowledged. Some of this research was supported by a grant under the ESEA Title IV-C Program for the handicapped. I also gratefully acknowledge Children's Hospital of Knoxville, TN, who have provided essential contract support for our laboratory at the University of Tennessee.