Biofeedback and Self-regulation

, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 547–564

Biofeedback of accommodation to reduce functional myopia

  • Joseph N. Trachtman
  • Vincent Giambalvo
  • Jerome Feldman
Original Articles

DOI: 10.1007/BF00998739

Cite this article as:
Trachtman, J.N., Giambalvo, V. & Feldman, J. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation (1981) 6: 547. doi:10.1007/BF00998739


Functional myopia may be defined as the refractive condition of the eye due to spasm of the ciliary muscle. As a result of the ciliary muscle spasm, the crystalline lens becomes more convex, creating a myopic refractive condition. The normal increase and decrease in the refractive power of the crystalline lens is known as accommodation and is controlled by the autonomic nervous system innervation to the ciliary muscle. Previous studies have reported that voluntary control of accommodation is possible by biofeedback training (Cornsweet & Crane, 1973; Randle, 1970). The present research investigated the application of biofeedback control of accommodation to reduce functional myopia. A double-reversal, multiple-baseline design was used to conduct the experiment. The results revealed that the three adult male subjects achieved the preset criterion, a 1/2-diopter reduction from initial baseline to a subsequent baseline. Further analysis of the data revealed even greater changes between initial baseline and feedback periods. Although generalization to a nonexperimental environment was not trained, each subject showed a reduction in myopia and an increase in visual acuity. The results of the experiment clearly demonstrated that functional myopia is subject to voluntary control.

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph N. Trachtman
    • 1
  • Vincent Giambalvo
    • 3
  • Jerome Feldman
    • 4
  1. 1.The City College of The City University of New YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyCity College of New YorkN.Y.
  3. 3.ADT CompanyClifton
  4. 4.State College of OptometryState University of New YorkUSA