, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 97-143

The Neolithic of the eastern Baltic

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This survey of the Baltic Neolithic, from Vistula to the Gulf of Finland, highlights the results of research during the last 30 years. The primary Baltic Neolithic is represented by two indigenous cultures, Narva and Nemunas. Their hunting, fishing, and gathering subsistence strategies gradually expanded to include domesticated plants and animals. The Comb-and-Pit Ornamented Pottery, Globular Amphora, Corded Ware, Bay Coast, and Boat-Axe cultures are also described. Within the Baltic Neolithic, I emphasize the origin, technology, economy, settlement, ritual, ethnic origins, and relationships among the various Neolithic populations. There is then a discussion of the origin of the Baltic linguistic group (Latvian, Lithuanian, and Old Prussian); this is associated with the appearance of the Late Neolithic Corded Ware culture, whose people integrated with local populations, leading to the development of the Bay Coast culture. Late Neolithic developments are associated with the Finno-Ugrian linguistic group in the northern Baltic.