Regulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity in primary cultured astrocytes
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- Vergé, V. & Hevor, T.K. Neurochem Res (1995) 20: 1049. doi:10.1007/BF00995559
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In the gluconeogenic pathway, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 126.96.36.199) is the last key-enzyme before the synthesis of glucose-6-phosphate. The extreme diversity of cells present in the whole brain does not facilitate in vivo study of this enzyme and makes it difficult to understand the regulatory mechanisms of the related carbohydrate metabolism. It is for instance difficult to grasp the actual effect of ions like potassium, magnesium and manganese on the metabolic process just as it is difficult to grasp the effect of different pH values and the influence of glycogenic compounds such as methionine sulfoximine. The present investigation attempts to study the expression and regulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in cultured astrocytes. Cerebral cortex of new-born rats was dissociated into single cells that were then plated. The cultured cells were flat and roughly polygonal and were positively immunostained by anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies. Cultured astrocytes are able to display the activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. This activity was much higher than that in brain tissue in vivo. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in cultured astrocytes did not require magnesium ions for its activity. The initial velocity observed when the activity was measured in standard conditions was largely increased when the enzyme was incubated with Mn2+. This increase was however followed by a decrease in absorbance resulting in the induction, by the manganese ions, of a singular kinetics in the enzyme activity. Potassium ions also stimulated fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity. When the enzyme was exposed to different pH values ranging from 6 to 9 units, the highest activity was observed at pH 6. When the cultured astrocytes were incubated with methionine sulfoximine, the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity increased. This increase was quick and depended on the dose of methionine sulfoximine. These results show that cultured astrocytes are able to maintain fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity. With the exception of the higher level activity associated acidic pH ranges, the properties of the enzyme resemble those of the in vivo enzyme. Methionine sulfoximine has a direct effect on astrocytes in its activation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. It is concluded that the expression and the regulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity in cultured astrocytes look like those in the brain. Astrocytes are probably the principal cells that express this activity in the brain in vivo.