, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 919-937

Oviposition stimulants for the black swallowtail butterfly: Identification of electrophysiologically active compounds in carrot volatiles

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Abstract

Headspace volatiles were collected from undamaged foliage of carrot,Daucus carota, a host-plant species of the black swallowtail butterfly,Papilio polyxenes. The volatiles were fractionated over silica on an open column, and the fractions were tested in behavioral assays withP. polyxenes females in laboratory experiments. The polar fractions, as well as the total mixture of volatiles, increased the landing frequency and the number of eggs laid on model plants with leaves bearing contact-oviposition stimulants. The nonpolar fraction, containing the most abundant compounds in carrot odor, was not stimulatory. Gas Chromatographic (GC) separation of the fractions was coupled with electroantennogram (EAG) recordings to identify the compounds perceived byP. polyxenes females. The EAG activity corresponded to the behavioral activity of the fractions. None of the nonpolar compounds, identified as various monoterpenes, evoked a major EAG response, but several constituents of the polar fractions elicited high EAG responses. Sabinene hydrate (both stereoisomers), 4-terpineol, bomyl acetate, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were identified by GC-MS as active compounds.