A comparison of white and black student academic success using noncognitive variables: A LISREL analysis
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The structural relation of the seven noncognitive dimensions proposed by Sedlacek and Brooks in 1976 and traditional definitions of academic ability, as indicated by Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, to first semester grade-point average (GPA) and persistence after three and five semesters was examined in this study. Random samples of entrants at one predominantly white state university were administered the Non-cognitive Questionnaire (NCQ) during summer orientation in 1979 and 1980. The NCQ results and the SAT scores were used to derive structural models (using LISREL) or early academic success for both black and white students. The structural models for the black and white students were found to be very different. For black students, traditional academic ability was related to first semester GPA, but neither GPA nor academic ability was related to persistence. Only the noncognitive dimensions were predictive of black student persistence. For white students, academic ability was the best predictor of first semester grades, and these grades were the major predictor of subsequent persistence. The noncognitive dimensions were not important in white student academic success, whereas they were crucial in black student academic success.
- Arken, L. R. (1964). The prediction of academic success and early attrition by means of a multiple-choice biographical inventory.American Educational Research Journal 1: 127–135.
- Astin, A. W. (1975).Preventing Students from Dropping Out.San Francisco:Jossey-Bass.
- Astin, A. W. (1982).Minorities in American Higher Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Beasley, S. R., and Sease, W. A. (1974). Using biographical data as a predictor of academic success for black university students.Journal of College Student Personnel 15: 201–206.
- Bentler, P. M., and Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures.Psychological Bulletin 88: 588–606.
- Clark, K. B., and Plotkin, L. (1964).The Negro Student at Integrated Colleges. New York: National Scholarship Service and Fund for Negro Students.
- Fleming, J. (1984).Blacks in College: A Comparative Study of Students' Success in Black and White Institutions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Gelso, C. J., and Rowell, D. (1967). Academic adjustment and persistence of students with marginal academic potential.Journal of Counseling Psychology 14: 478–481.
- Gibbs, J. L. (1973). Black students/white university: Different expectations.Personnel and Guidance Journal 51: 463–469.
- Goodrich, A. (1978). A data-driven minority student retention model for faculty and administrators in predominately white institutions. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American College Personnel Association, Detroit, March.
- Gottfredson, D. C. (1981). Black-white differences in educational attainment process: What have we learned?American Sociological Review 46: 542–547.
- Joreskog, K. G., and Sorbom, D. (1983).LISREL VI: Analysis of Linear Structural Relationships by the Method of Maximum Likelihood. Chicago: International Educational Services.
- Long, J. S. (1983).Confirmatory Factor Analysis: A Preface to LISREL. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
- Marsh, H. W., and Hocevar, D. (1985). Application of confirmatory factor analysis to the study of self-concept: First- and higher order factor models and their invariance across groups.Psychological Bulletin 97: 562–582.
- Messick, S. (1979). Potential uses of noncognitive measurement in education.Journal of Educational Psychology 71: 281–292.
- Nelson, R. B., Scott, T. B., and Bryan, W. A. (1984). Precollege characteristics and early college experiences as predictors of freshman year persistence.Journal of College Student Personnel 25: 50–54.
- Nettles, M., Thoeny, A. R., and Gosman, E. (1986). Comparative and predictive analyses of black and white students' college achievement and experiences.Journal of Higher Education 57: 289–318.
- Pascarella, E. T., and Chapman, D. W. (1983). A multi-institutional path analytic validation of Tinto's model of college withdrawal.American Educational Research Journal 20: 87–102.
- Pascarella, E. T., Duby, P. B., and Iverson, B. K. (1983). A test and reconceptualization of a theoretical model of college withdrawal in a commuter institution setting.Sociology of Education 56: 88–100.
- Pentages, T. J., and Creedon, C. F. (1978). Studies of college attrition: 1950–1975.Review of Educational Research 48: 49–101.
- Portes, A. J., and Wilson, K. L. (1976). Black-white differences in educational attainment.American Sociological Review 41: 414–431.
- Pruitt, A. S. (1973). Minority admissions to large universities: A response.Journal of College Student Personnel 14: 22–24.
- Sedlacek, W. E. (in press). Black students on white campuses: 20 years of research.Journal of College Student Personnel.
- Sedlacek, W. E., and Brooks, G. C., Jr. (1976).Racism in American Education: A Model for Change. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
- Sedlacek, W. E., and Pelham, J. C. (1976). Minority admissions to large universities: A national survey.Journal of Non-White Concerns in Personnel and Guidance 4: 53–63.
- Sedlacek, W. E., and Webster, D. W. (1978). Admission and retention of minority students in large universities.Journal of College Student Personnel 19: 242–248.
- Tinto, V. (1975). Dropout from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research.Review of Educational Research 45: 89–125.
- Tracey, T. J., and Sedlacek, W. E. (1981). A description and illustration of a model for conducting student retention research.National Association of Student Personnel Administrators Journal Field Report 5: 5–6.
- Tracey, T. J., and Sedlacek, W. E. (1984). Noncognitive variables in predicting academic success by race.Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance 16: 171–178.
- Tracey, T. J., and Sedlacek, W. E. (1985). The relationship of noncognitive variables to academic success: A longitudinal comparison by race.Journal of College Student Personnel 26: 405–410.
- Tracey, T. J., and Sedlacek, W. E. (1987). Prediction of college graduation using noncognitive variables by race.Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 19: 177–184.
- Wolfle, L. M. (1985). Postsecondary educational attainment among whites and blacks.American Educational Research Journal 22: 501–525.
- A comparison of white and black student academic success using noncognitive variables: A LISREL analysis
Research in Higher Education
Volume 27, Issue 4 , pp 333-348
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links