A laboratory investigation of theItoplectis conquisitor sex pheromone was initiated to elucidate the structure(s) of the active component(s) of the system. Functional group tests performed on crude virgin female extract classified the pheromone as unsaturated aldehyde(s) and/or ketone(s). Isolation of active fractions by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) suggested the existence of a multicomponent pheromone system. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated the presence of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes including neral and geranial. When mixtures of neral and geranial were bioassayed independently and in combination with other active GLC fractions, they elicited male sexual activity of intensity comparable to that released by the GLC fraction (DEGS E) from which they were isolated. The authors conclude that neral and/or geranial are components of the sex pheromone system of this species.