, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 1029-1055

Quantitative variation of pheromone components in the spruce bark beetleIps typographus from different attack phases

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Abstract

Ips typographus beetles were collected in the field, separated into eight attack phases (from beetles walking on the trunk of a tree under attack to those excavating gallery systems with a mother gallery longer than 4 cm), and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol,cis- andtrans-verbenol, verbenone, myrtenol, trans-myrtanol, ipsenol, ipsdienol, and 2-phenylethanol were quantified from excised hindguts against an internal standard, heptyl acetate, in the extraction solvent. Methylbutenol, the pinene alcohols, and 2-phenylethanol showed the same pattern of variation between attack phases in males, with the largest amounts present before accepting females and then a fast decline. Ipsenol and ipsdienol were not detected in males before the females were accepted, and the amounts increased when the females start their egg laying. Verbenone occurred only in trace amounts. The beetles were sampled from five Norway spruce trees (Picea abies) of differing resin flow. The correlations between the nine pheromone components and five major host monoterpenes in the gut showed that the variation in the amount of methyl-butenol, ipsenol, and ipsdienol could not be explained by the variation in the amounts of host monoterpenes. In contrast over 80% of the quantitative variation ofcis-verbenol,trans-verbenol, and myrtenol was explained by the amount of α-pinene. The nine pheromone components from 36 individual males were also quantified. Both methylbutenol andcis-verbenol showed a large variation in both amounts and proportions. Females containedtrans-verbenol and traces of most other components found in males. When accepted by the male, they also contained a female-specific compound, β-isophorone. Behavioral and biosynthetic implications of the results are discussed.

Coleoptera: Scolytidae.
This study was made within the Swedish project “Odour Signals for Control of Pest Insects.”