Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 216, Issue 1, pp 135–166

Fruit differentiation, palynology, and systematics in theScabiosa group of genera andPseudoscabiosa (Dipsacaceae)

  • Veronika Mayer
  • Friedrich Ehrendorfer

DOI: 10.1007/BF00985103

Cite this article as:
Mayer, V. & Ehrendorfer, F. Pl Syst Evol (1999) 216: 135. doi:10.1007/BF00985103


Fruits ofDipsacaceae are single-seeded, have bristle-shaped calyx segments and are tightly enclosed by four fused bracts forming an epicalyx. Comparative morphological and anatomical studies reveal a great diversity of epicalyx and calyx, often relevant to fruit dispersal. The present contribution deals with theScabiosa group of genera, the core of theScabioseae tribe. Most of its taxa develop a diaphragma from a meristem on the inside of the epicalyx. This diaphragma, together with the lower part of the epicalyx encloses the fruit proper, whereas the upper parts form a so-called “epi-diaphragma” (ed) and a ± hyaline corona. Differences of the epicalyx with respect to the size and position of the ed, elaboration of the corona, origin of pits (=foveoles) and other morphological and anatomical specializations can be demonstrated. Together with palynological and karyological data these new facts support an improved concept of relationships and systematics for the taxa studied:Scabiosa sect.Scabiosa and sect.Cyrtostemma are closely related and should be united to form the genusScabiosa s. str.;Pycnocomon can be maintained as an independent genus, sister toScabiosa sect.Trochocephalus which then has to be treated as a genus,Lomelosia. In contrast, the following genera have to be included inLomelosia:Tremastelma asLomelosia sect.Callistemma, andScabiosiopsis as part ofLomelosia sect.Lomelosia. Pseudoscabiosa deviates in so many features that it has to be excluded from the redefinedScabioseae s. str.

Key words

DipsacaceaePseudoscabiosaScabiosaSixalixLomelosiaPycnocomonScabiosiopsisTremastelmaEpicalyxfruit anatomyevolutionsystematics

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Veronika Mayer
    • 1
  • Friedrich Ehrendorfer
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden, Department of Systematics and EvolutionUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Commission for Interdisciplinary Ecological StudiesAustrian Academy of SciencesViennaAustria