Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 222, Issue 1, pp 89–111

The ecology and evolution of visual pollen signals

  • K. Lunau

DOI: 10.1007/BF00984097

Cite this article as:
Lunau, K. Pl Syst Evol (2000) 222: 89. doi:10.1007/BF00984097


By offering pollen and/or nectar as a food resource, angiosperms exploit flower visitors for pollen transport. Pollen thus acts not only as a means for transportation of male gametes, but also as a food reward for potential pollinators. Many findings provide compelling evidence that pollen acts, in addition, as a visual signal. The present contribution reviews several strategies that angiosperms have evolved to attract potential pollinators to the site of reward. We here consider evolutionary, ecological, sensory-physiological, and behavioural aspects of flower-pollinator interactions that are correlated with visual signals provided by pollen and pollen-producing organs, or imitations thereof.

Key words

Pollenpollen colourpollen pigmentcolour patternUV-patternfloral guide

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Lunau
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für NeurobiologieHeinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany