Duell, O.K., Lynch, D.J., Ellsworth, R. et al. Res High Educ (1992) 33: 483. doi:10.1007/BF00973768
Professors teaching education classes differed little from professors teaching noneducation classes in terms of the questions they asked and how long they paused after questions and students' responses. Fewer professor questions went unanswered in the education courses. Professors ask on average about 25 questions each class hour, the majority of which are higher-level. They pause about 2.25 seconds after questions and .45 seconds after student responses. These pauses suggest many students are effectively shut out of responding and are not provided the opportunity to elaborate their answers, even those to complex, divergent questions.