Evidence of an oxidative challenge in the Alzheimer's brain
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Alzheimer's disease may arise from or produce oxidative damage in the brain. To assess the responses of the Alzheimer's brain to possible oxidative challenges, we assayed for glutathione, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase and superoxide dismutase in twelve regions of Alzheimer's disease and aged control brains. In addition, we determined levels of malondialdehyde to evaluate lipid peroxidation in these brain regions. Most brain regions showed evidence of a response to an oxidative challenge, but the cellular response to this challenge differed among brain regions. These data suggest that the entire Alzheimer's brain may be subject to an oxidative challenge, but that some brain areas may be more vulnerable than others to the consequent neural damage that characterizes the disease.
- Volcier, L., and Crino, P. B. 1990. Involvement of free radicals in dementia of the Alzheimer's type: a hypothesis. Neurobiol. Aging 11:567–571.
- Freeman, B. A., and J. D. Crapo. 1982. Biology of disease: Free radicals and tissue injury. Lab. Invest. 47:412–426.
- Haliwell, B., and Gutteridge, J. M. C. 1989. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. 2nd ed., Oxford, Clarendon Press.
- Nohl, H., and Hegner, D. 1978. Do mitochondria produce oxygen radicals in vivo? Eur. J. Biochem. 82:563–567.
- Davies, K. J. A. 1987. Protein damage and degradation by oxygen radicals. J. Biol. Chem. 262:9895–9901.
- Lin, W. S., Wong, F., and Anderson, R. 1987. Role of superoxide in radiation-killing of Escherichia coli and in thymine release from thymidine. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 147:778–786.
- Melho-Filho, A. C., and Menighini, R. 1984. In vivo formation of single-strand breaks in DNA by hydrogen peroxide is mediated by the Hager-Weiss reaction. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 781:56–63.
- Harman, D., Eddy, E. E., and Noffsinger, J. 1976. Free radical theory of aging: Inhibition of amyloidosis in mice after antioxidants; possible mechanism. Amer. Geriatrics Soc. 24:203–210.
- Blass, J. P., Baker, A. C., Ko, L. W., and Black, R. S. 1990. Induction of Alzheimer antigens by an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Arch. Neurol. 47:864–869.
- Ceballos, I., Javoy-Agid, F., Hirsch, E. C., Dumas, S., Kamoun, P. P., Sinet, P. M., and Agid, Y. 1989. Localization of copperzinc superoxide dismutase mRNA in human hippocampus by in situ hybridization. Neurosci. Lett. 105:41–46.
- Marklund, S. L., Aldolfsson, R., Gottfries, C. G., and Winbald, B. 1985. Superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in normal brains and in brains from patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. J. Neurol. Sci. 67:319–325.
- Pappolla, M. A., Omar, R. A., Kim, K. S., and Robakis, N. K. 1992. Immunohistochemical evidence of antioxidant stress in Alzheimer's Disease. Am. J. Pathol. 140:621–628.
- Delacourte, A., Defossez, A., Ceballos, I., Nicole, A., and Sinet, P. M. 1988. Preferential localization of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase in the vulnerable cortical neurons in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci. Lett. 92:247–253.
- Chia, L. S., Thompson, J. E., and Moscarello, M. A. 1984. X-ray diffraction evidence for myelin disorder in brain from humans with Alzheimer's disease. Can Biochem. Biophys. Acta Ser. Biomembr. 775:308–312.
- Subarao, K. V., Richardson, S., and Ang, L. C. 1990. Autopsy samples of Alzheimer's cortex show increased peroxidation in vitro. J. Neurochem. 55:342–345.
- Hajimohammadreza, I., and Brammer, M. 1990. Brain membrane fludity and lipid peroxidation in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci. Lett. 112:333–337.
- Meister, A., and Anderson, M. E. 1983. Glutathione. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 52:711–760.
- Perry, T. L., Yong, V. W., Bergeron, C., H. S., and Jones, K. 1987. Amino acids, glutathione, and glutathione transferase activity in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Ann. Neurol. 21:331–336.
- Adams, J. D., Jr., Klaidman, L. K., Odunze, I. N., Shen, H. C., and Miller, C. A. 1991. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Brain levels of glutathione, glutathione disulfide, and Vitamin E. Mol. Chem. Neuropathol. 14:213–226.
- Lehninger, A. L. 1975. Biochemistry. Worth: New York.
- Kosower, N. S., and Kosower, E. M. 1978. The glutathione status of cells. Int. Rev. Cytol. 54:109–160.
- Martins, R. N., Harper, C. G., Stokes, G. B., and Masters, C. L. 1986. Increased cerebral glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in Alzheimer's disease may reflect oxidative stress. J. Neurochem. 46:1042–1045.
- Mirra, S. S., Heyman, A., McKeel, D., Sumi, S. M., Crain, B. J., Brownlee, L. M., Vogel, F. S., Hughes, J. P., van Belle, G., and Berg, L. 1991. The consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD). Part II. Standardization of the neuropathologic assessment of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 41:479–486.
- Chan, P. H., and Fishman, R. A. 1980. Transient formation of superoxide radicals in polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced brain swelling. J. Neurochem. 35:1004–1007.
- Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L., and Randal, R. J. 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193:265.
- Cohen, G., Dembiec, D., and Marcus, J. 1970. Measurement of catalase in tissue extracts. Analyt. Biochem. 34:30–38.
- Marklund, S. 1979. A simple specific method for the determination of the hemoglobin contents of tissue homogenates. Clin. Chim. Acta. 92:229–234.
- Catalano, E. W., Johnson, G. F., and Solomon, H. M. 1975. Measurement of erythrocyte glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity with a centrifugal analyzer. Clin. Chem. 21:134–138.
- Cho, S., and Joshi, J. G. 1988. Effect of long-term feeding of aluminum chloride on hexokinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the brain. Toxicology 48:61–69.
- Anderson, M. E. 1985. Determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in biological samples. Meth. Enzymol. 113:548–555.
- Tietze, F. 1969. Enzymatic method for quantitative determination of nanogram amounts of total and oxidized glutathione: applications to mammalian blood and other tissues. Anal. Biochem. 27:502–522.
- Kostyuk, V. A., and Potapovich, A. L. 1989. Superoxide-driven oxidation of quercetin and a simple sensitive assay for determination of superoxide dismutase. Biochem. Int. 19:1117–24.
- Whitehouse, P. J., Price, D. L., Struble, R. G., Clark, A. W., Coyle, J. T., and DeLong, M. R. 1982. Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia: loss of neurons in the basal forebrain. Science 215:1237–1239.
- Perrins, R., Briancon, S., Jeandel, C., Artur, Y., Minn, A., Penin, F., and Siest, G. 1990. Blood activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in Alzheimer's disease: a case-control study. Gerontology 36:306–313.
- Zemlen, F. P., Thienhaus, O. J., and Bosman, H. B. 1989. Superoxide dismutase activity in Alzheimer's disease: possible mechanism for paired helical filament formation. Brain Res. 476:160–162.
- Evidence of an oxidative challenge in the Alzheimer's brain
Volume 19, Issue 9 , pp 1131-1137
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Alzheimer's disease
- glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
- superoxide dismutase
- lipid peroxidation
- Industry Sectors