Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 162, Issue 1, pp 133–163

Mediterranean pines and their history

  • Wilhelm Klaus

DOI: 10.1007/BF00936915

Cite this article as:
Klaus, W. Pl Syst Evol (1989) 162: 133. doi:10.1007/BF00936915


The assembly of Mediterranean pines in the sense ofMirov is inhomogeneous in respect to morphological, geographical and evolutionary affinities. Considering new or neglected characters (vegetative and particularly reproductive, cone scales, apophyses, mucros, seeds: Figs. 1–3) in extant populations and fossils, three groups are recognized. The group of coast and island pines extends from the Canary islands to the Himalaya region and is closely related to Caribbean and C. American taxa. This complex evidently has originated from haploxyl ancestors of sect.Parrya during the Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) in the NW. Tethys area (Fig. 13).P. rzedowskii can be regarded as an extant survivor of this first phase of differentiation. The extremely variableP. canariensis (together withP. roxburghii in sect.Sula) marks a transitional phase towards the more advanced diploxyl species of sect.Pinea (withP. pinea, P. halepensis &P. brutia, and subsect.Oocarpae) and sect.Pinaster (withP. pinaster, etc.) (Figs. 4–12).—The second group consists of diploxyl mountain pines from the areas surrounding the Mediterranean. They are classified as members of the Eurasiatic sect.Pinus subsect.Sylvestres, have differentiated along the northern Parathetys area, and exhibit close links with E. Asiatic taxa. The third group includes the haploxyl mountain pinesP. cembra andP. peuce which can be regarded as western outposts of the circumpacific centred sect.Strobus with a pre-Tertiary origin.—As an appendix, an improved classification scheme is presented for the pine groups discussed.

Key words

Gymnosperms Pinaceae Pinus Rzedowskiae andResinosae: subsectt. nov. Cone and seed morphology vegetative characters Tertiary fossils phytogeography Flora of the Mediterranean region C. and N. America 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wilhelm Klaus
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für BotanikUniversität WienWienAustria