Molecular characteristics in Japanese patients with lipidosis: Novel mutations in metachromatic leukodystrophy and Gaucher disease
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- Eto, Y., Kawame, H., Hasegawa, Y. et al. Mol Cell Biochem (1993) 119: 179. doi:10.1007/BF00926869
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The characterization of mutations in Japanese patients with lipidosis, particularly in metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) and Gaucher disease has been studied in detail. Metachromatic leukodystrophy is characterized by an accumulation of sulfatide in nervous tissues and kidney due to a deficiency of arylsulfatase A (ASA). We analyzed the presence of three known mutant arylsulfatase A alleles in Japanese patients with MLD. Among 10 patients of Japanese patients with MLD, we found that allele 445A mutation has moderately high incidence and also homozygosity of this mutation results in the late infantile form. Allele 2381T was not found in Japanese patients. Furthermore, we found novel mutation which is G- to A mutation at the 1070 nucleotide of the ASA gene (designated 1070 A) in Japanese patients with juvenile onset. This mutation results in a amino acid substitution of Gly245 by Arg and found in heterozygote form. Our studies of molecular analysis in 10 Japanese patients with MLD indicate that Japanese MLD patients have unique characteristics of ASA mutations compared with those of Caucasian patients. On the other hand, Gaucher disease is the most prevalent sphingolipidosis, characterized by an accumulation of glucocerebroside in macrophage derived cells due to a deficiency of lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase. To study the molecular basis of Gaucher disease in Japanese patients, we analyzed the presence of the two known mutations (6433C and 3548A) in the glucocerebrosidase gene of 15 patients with Gaucher disease. We found that the 6433C and 3548A mutations occur in all subtypes of Japanese patients with Gaucher disease. Most frequent mutations among them was the 6433C mutation, 40% of 30 chromosomes, whereas the novel mutation of the 3548A found in Japanese patients with neuronopathic Gaucher disease was found in 20% (6 out of 30 chromosomes). The characteristics of these mutations in Japanese patients with Gaucher disease is different from those of Caucasian populations reported previously.