Sensory Extinction: A procedure for eliminating self-stimulatory behavior in developmentally disabled children
- Arnold Rincover
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
This study was designed to investigate the role of sensory reinforcement in the motivation of self-stimulation. If self-stimulatory behavior is maintained by its sensory consequences, such as the proprioceptive, auditory, or visual stimulation it produces, then such behavior should extinguish when those sensory consequences are not permitted. The present study introduces a new procedure, Sensory Extinction, in which certain sensory consequences are masked or removed, to examine whether self-stimulation is operant behavior maintained by sensory reinforcement. The effectiveness of Sensory Extinction was assessed by a reversal design for each of three autistic children, and the results showed the following. First, self-stimulation reliably extinguished when a certain sensory consequence was removed, then increased when that consequence was permitted. This was replicable within and across children. Second, different Sensory Extinction procedures were required for different self-stimulatory behaviors, since the sensory reinforcers supporting them were idiosyncratic across children. Finally, regarding clinical gains, the data suggest that Sensory Extinction may be a relatively convenient and rapid alternative for the treatment of self-stimulation. The present findings extend the efficacy of extinction as a behavior-modification technique to instances in which the reinforcer is purely sensory. The implications of these results for the treatment of other forms of deviant behavior are discussed.
- Rincover, A., & Berry, K.Comparing the motivational properties of sensory and edible reinforcers in the treatment of autistic children. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Atlanta, 1977.
- Azrin, N. H., Kaplan, S. J., & Foxx, R. M. Autism reversal: Eliminating stereotyped self-stimulation of retarded individuals.American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1973,78, 241–248.
- Baer, D. B., & Wolf, M. M. Recent examples of behavior modification in preschool settings. In C. Neuringer & J. L. Michael (Eds.),Behavior modification in clinical psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970.
- Bandura, A.Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969.
- Baumeister, A. A., & Forehand, R. Effects of contingent shock and verbal command on body rocking of retardates.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1972,28, 586–590.
- Berkson, G., & Davenport, R. K. Stereotyped movements in mental defectives: I. Initial survey.American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1962,66, 849–852.
- Davison, G. C., & Neale, J. M.Abnormal psychology: An experimental clinical approach. New York: Wiley, 1974.
- Ellis, M. J.Why people play. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973.
- Fineman, F. R. Shaping and increasing verbalizations in an autistic child in response to visual-color stimulation.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1968,27, 1071–1074.
- Forehand, R., & Baumeister, A. A. Rate of stereotyped body rocking of severe retardates as a function of frustration of a goal-directed behavior.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1971,78, 35–42.
- Forehand, R., & Baumeister, A. A. Deceleration of aberrant behavior among retarded individuals. In M. Hersen, R. Eisler, & P. Miller (eds.),Progress in Behavior Modification. New York: Academic Press, 1976.
- Fox, R. M., & Azrin, N. H. The elimination of autistic self-stimulatory behavior by overcorrection.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1973,6, 1–14.
- Harlow, H. F., & Harlow, M. K. Psychopathology in monkeys. In H. D. Kimmel (Ed.),Experimental psychopathology: Recent research and theory. New York: Academic Press, 1971.
- Hunt, J. McV., & Quay, H. C. Early vibratory experience and the question of innate reinforcement value of vibration and other stimuli: a limitation on the discrepancy (burnt soup) principles in motivation.Psychological Review, 1961,68, 149–156.
- Kaufman, M. E., & Levitt, H. A study of three stereotyped behaviors in institutionalized mental defectives.American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1965,69, 467–473.
- Kish, G. B. Studies of sensory reinforcement. In W. K. Honig (Ed.),Operant behavior: Areas of research and application. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966.
- Koegel, R. L., & Covert, A. The relationship of self-stimulation to learning in autistic children.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1972,5, 381–387.
- Koegel, R. L., Firestone, P. B., Kramme, K. W., & Dunlap, G. Increasing spontaneous play by suppressing self-stimulation in autistic children.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1974,7, 521–528.
- Koegel, R. L., & Rincover, A. Classroom treatment of psychotic children; I. Learning in a large group.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1974,7, 45–59.
- Lovaas, O. I.Language acquisition programs for nonlinguistic children. New York: Irvington Publishers, 1976.
- Lovaas, O. I., Litrownik, A., & Mann, R. Response latencies to auditory stimuli in autistic children engaged in self-stimulatory behavior.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1971,9, 39–49.
- Lovaas, O. I., & Newsom, C. D. Behavior modification with psychotic children. In H. Leitenberg (Ed.),Handbook of behavior modification and therapy. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1976.
- Lovaas, O. I., Schaeffer, B., & Simmons, J. Q. Building social behavior in autistic children by the use of electric shock.Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1965,1, 99–109.
- Newsom, C. D.The role of sensory reinforcement in self-stimulatory behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, UCLA, 1974.
- Newsom, C. D., Carr, E. G., & Lovaas, O. I. Experimental analysis and modification of autistic behavior. In R. S. Davidson (Ed.),Experimental analysis of clinical phenomena. New York: Gardner Press, 1977.
- Ornitz, E. M. The modulation of sensory input and motor output in autistic children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1974,4, 197–215.
- Repp, A. C., Deitz, S. M., & Speir, N. C. Reducing Stereotypic responding of retarded persons by the differential reinforcement of other behaviors.American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1974,79, 279–284.
- Rimland, B.Infantile autism. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1964.
- Rimland, B. The differentiation of childhood psychoses: An analyses of checklists for 2,218 psychotic children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1971,1, 161–174.
- Rincover, A.,& Kogel, R. L. Research on the education of autistic children: Recent advances and future directions. In B. B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.),Advances in clinical child psychology. New York: Plenum Press, 1977. (a)
- Rincover, A., & Koegel, R. L. Classroom treatment of autistic children: II. Individualized instruction in a group.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1977,5, 113–126. (b)
- Rincover, A., Newsom, C. D., Lovaas, O. I., & Koegel, R. L. Some motivational properties of sensory reinforcement with psychotic children.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1977,24, 312–323.
- Rincover, A., Peoples, A., & Packard, D. Using sensory extinction and sensory reinforcement principles for programming response generalization.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1978, in press.
- Risley, T. R. The effects and side effects of punishing the autistic behaviors of a deviant child.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1968,1, 21–34.
- Ritvo, E. R., Ornitz, E. M., & LaFranchi, S. Frequency of repetitive behaviors in early autism and its variants.Archives of General Psychiatry, 1968,19, 341–347.
- Solnick, J. V., Rincover, A., & Peterson, C. R. Some determinants of the reinforcing and punishing effects of time-out.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1977,10, 415–424.
- Spradlin, J. E., & Girardeau, F. L. The behavior of moderately and severely retarded persons. In N. R. Ellis (Ed.),International review of research in mental retardation (Vol. 1). New York: Academic Press, 1966.
- Sroufe, L. A., Steucher, H. V., & Stutzer, W. The functional significance of autistic behaviors for the psychotic child.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1973,1, 225–240.
- Zubeck, P.Sensory deprivation: Fifteen years of research. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969.
- Sensory Extinction: A procedure for eliminating self-stimulatory behavior in developmentally disabled children
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Volume 6, Issue 3 , pp 299-310
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Arnold Rincover (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina, 27412, Greensboro, North Carolina