, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 255-272

Numerical studies on the two-dimensional flow in horizontally homogeneous canopy layers

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The two-dimensional equation of motion containing the pressure gradient and Coriolis force is numerically solved for the wind field in and above the layers of a horizontally homogeneous canopy with a vertical distribution of leaf-area densities. The solution shows that, in the case of descending through the canopy, the wind vector turns with an angle which depends on the profile of leaf-area densities. In particular, for the canopy of a forest consisting of upper layers with higher densities and lower layers with smaller densities, the turning is striking; a secondary maximum in wind profile appears in the lower layers.

Variations of the aerodynamic parameters for the flow above the canopy are indicated with respect to the leaf-area density. The roughness length varies in such a manner that a maximum appears in intermediate density values, depending on the shape of the profile of leaf-area density. In the case of very dense canopies, the shearing stress acting on the flow above the canopy is determined by the contribution from only the upper canopy elements, but not by that from the lower parts of the canopy.