Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 337–353

Empirical evidence for overt and covert patterns of antisocial conduct problems: A metaanalysis

  • Rolf Loeber
  • Karen B. Schmaling

DOI: 10.1007/BF00910652

Cite this article as:
Loeber, R. & Schmaling, K.B. J Abnorm Child Psychol (1985) 13: 337. doi:10.1007/BF00910652


Twenty-eight factor- and cluster-analytic studies of child psychopathology were examined for patterns in antisocial behavior. A multidimensional scaling analysis yielded one dimension that was labeled overt-covert antisocial behavior. One end of this dimension consisted of overt or confrontive antisocial behaviors such as arguing, temper tantrums, and fighting. The other end consisted of covert or concealed antisocial behaviors such as stealing, truancy, and fire setting. Implications derived from the present findings are discussed as they apply to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of antisocial behaviors in children.

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rolf Loeber
    • 1
  • Karen B. Schmaling
    • 1
  1. 1.Oregon Social Learning CenterUSA
  2. 2.Western Psychiatric HospitalUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical SchoolPittsburgh