Public health measures and mortality in U.S. cities in the late nineteenth century
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
In this paper we examine the decline in mortality rates by cause of death in U.S. cities during the last decade of the. 19th century. Causes of death are grouped according to their probable relationship to specific public health measures. The reduction which occurred in the death rates from some diseases, e.g., typhoid and diarrheal diseases, can probably be attributed in part to the provision of sewers and waterworks. Large declines also occurred in the death rates from tuberculosis and diphtheria, but the relationship between the declines in these diseases and public health practices designed to combat them is more ambiguous. We therefore conclude that public health measures had some impact on the decline in mortality, but that these measures do not provide a complete explanation of the mortality decline.
- Crimmins-Gardner, E., and Condran, G. A. (1976). Nineteenth Century American Mortality. Paper presented at the meetings of the Population Association of America, April 1976.
- Dublin, L. I., Lotka, A. J., Siegelman, M. (1949) Length of Life. Ronald Press, New York
- Duffy, J. (1974) A History of Public Health in New York City, 1866–1966. Russell Sage Foundation, New York
- Easterlin, R. A. Population issues in American economic history: A survey and critique. In: Gallman, R. E. eds. (1977) Recent Developments in the Study of Business and Economic History: Essays in Honor of Herman E. Krooss. Johnson Associates, Greenwich, Connecticut
- Gore, J. K. (1904) On the improvement in longevity in the United States during the nineteenth century. Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Actuaries, Vol. I. The Actuarial Society of America, New York
- Meeker, E. (1972) The improving health of the United States, 1850–1915. Explorations in Economic History 9: pp. 353-374
- Meeker, E. (n.d.). Public health and medicine. InDictionary of American History, Charles Scribner's and Sons, forthcoming.
- McKeown, T., Record, R. G. (1962) Reasons for the decline of mortality in England and Wales during the nineteenth century. Population Studies 16: pp. 94-122
- Rosen, G. (1971) Historical trends and future prospects in public health. In Medical History and Medical Care: A Symposium of Perspectives. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 57-81
- Rosenkrantz, B. G. (1972) Public Health and the State: Changing Views in Massachusetts, 1842–1936. Harvard University Press, Cambridge
- Smith, W. (1964).Cities of Our Past and Present. New York.
- Sydenstriker, E. (1972) Health and Environment. Arno Press and The New York Times, New York
- Taeuber, C., and Taeuber, I. B. (1958).The Changing Population of the United States. New York.
- Twelfth Census, 1900: A Discussion of the Vital Statistics. Bulletin 15. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
- Eleventh Census, 1890, Vital and Social Statistics. Part II, Vital Statistics. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
- Twelfth Census, 1900: Population, Part II. U.S. Census Office, Washington, D.C.
- Twelfth Census, 1900: Vital Statistics, Part I — Analysis and Ratio Tables. U.S. Census Office, Washington, D.C.
- Twelfth Census, 1900: Vital Statistics, Part II — Statistics of Death. U.S. Census Office, Washington, D.C.
- U.S. Department of Labor (1900).Bulletin of the Department of Labor, Statistics of Cities, No. 30.
- U.S. Department of Labor (1901).Bulletin of the Department of Labor: Statistics of Cities, No. 36.
- Whipple, G. C. (1908) Typhoid Fever, Its Causation, Transmission, and Prevention. Wiley, New York
- Winslow, C. E. A. (1923) The Evolution and Significance of the Modern Public Health Campaign. Yale University Press, New Haven
- Public health measures and mortality in U.S. cities in the late nineteenth century
Volume 6, Issue 1 , pp 27-54
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- public health measures
- urban areas