Roof bolting in underground mining: a state-of-the-art review
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
With continuing investigations and developments, roof bolting today can in most cases successfully reinforce the mine roof in underground mining. In order to cope with the increasing use of roof bolts, efforts should be made to maximize the safety and minimize the cost. With regard to mechanical bolting, two important parameters need more advanced improvements and study, namely, optimum design of the shape and type of expansion shell and optimum bolt tension for a specific bolt pattern. For the fully grouted resin bolt, the most critical requirement is to develop a fast-setting, low-cost, intoxic, inflammable grouting material that can be used in the high speed mining cycle. It should be noted that geological conditions such as the strata type, rock properties,in situ stress, and planes of weakness play an important role in the successful application of any roof bolting system. These factors should be specified as accurately and quantitatively as possible in the design of any roof bolting system. Finally, proper and careful installation and continuous monitoring are imperative for the success of any roof bolting system.
Alexander, L.G. and Hosking, A.D. (1971) Principles of rock bolting formation of a support medium,Symposium on Rock Bolting, February, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Illawarra Branch, Paper No. 1, 21 pp.
American Society for Testing and Materials (1976)Standard Specifications for Roof and Rock Bolts and Accessories, ASTM Standard No. F 432-76a, 14 pp.
Anderson, R.B. (1974) Use of resin-anchored roof bolts in adverse conditions,Mining Congress Journal, January, pp. 37–40.
Atlas Copco (1982) Rock Reinforcement System, Swellex.
Babcock, C.O. (1980) A plastic-elastic helical rock bolt,Proceedings of the 21st US Symposium on Rock Mechanics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Missouri, pp. 769–79.
Barnes, E.L.S. (1971) Rock bolt testing,Symposium on Rock Bolting, February, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Illawarra Branch, Paper No. 4.
Barry, A.J.et al. (1954)Use of Torque Wrench to Determine Load in Roof Bolts, Part 2, Expansion-Type 3/4 in. Bolts, USBM, RI 5080.
Carr, F. (1971) Recent developments in strata bolting in National Coal Board mines in the United Kingdom,Symposium on Rock Bolting, February, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Illawarra Branch, Paper No. 11.
Coates, D.F. and Yu, Y.S. (1970) Three-dimensional stress distributions around a cylindrical hole and anchor,Proceedings of the 2nd Congress of the International Society for Rock Mechanics, Belgrade, Vol. 3, pp. 175–82.
Conway, J.P.et al. (1974)Laboratory Studies of Yielding Rock Bolts, USBM, RI 8058.
Dejean, M. and Raffoux, J.F. (1976) Mining drifts and tunnels: role of rockbolting and parameters in its selection, inTunnelling '76 (edited by M. J. Jones), London, Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, pp. 321–7.
de la Cruz, R.V. (1964)Mechanism of Bolt Anchorage, MS Thesis in Mining Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University.
de la Cruz, R.V. and Mulkey, J.R. (1980) Effects ofin situ stress on the stability of mine roof bolts,Mining Engineering,32, 1269–72.
Dunham, R.K. (1976) Model studies of resin-anchored bolting reinforcement,Colliery Guardian 224, 593–8.
Engineers International, Inc. (1978)Evaluation of Roof Bolt Tension Indicator, USBM Contract No. HO166096, November, Illinois.
Engineers International, Inc. (1979)Development and Testing of Self-Drilling Roof Bolts, prepared for USBM under Contract HO272022.
Envirotech Corporation (1976)Large Scale Field Test of Pumpable Roof Bolts, prepared for USBM under Contract HO232041.
Fairhurst, C. and Singh, B. (1974)Roofbolting in Horizontally Laminated Rock, E/MJ, February, pp. 80–90.
Farmer, I.W. (1975) Stress distribution along a resin grouted rock anchor,International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mineral Sciences, Geomechanics Abstracts,12, 347–51.
Fazio, C.P. (1982) Remote control roof bolting,Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Ground Control in Mining, West Virginia University, pp. 188–97.
Foster, B.E.et al. (1975)Development of Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Large Rock Specimens, Report No. ORNL-TM-4899, National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, June 1975.
Foundation Sciences, Inc. (1976)Tests of Inclined Roof Bolts and Analysis of Their Effectiveness in Roof Control in Coal Mines, USBM Contract HO252071.
Franklin, J.A. and Woodfield, P.F. (1971) Comparison of a polyester resin and a mechanical rockbolt anchor,Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 80, A91–100.
Frazer and Jones Co. with New Business Ventures Division/3M, Shell Lock II with 3M ‘No Mix Resin’ Mine Roof Bolt Anchoring Systems.
Fuller, P.G. and Cadby, G.W. (1981)Pre-tensioning Rock Bolts, CSIR, Australia, Technical Paper No. 113, March.
Gardner, F.J. (1971) History of rock bolting,Symposium on Rock Bolting, February 1971, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Illawarra Branch, Paper No. 2, 11 pp.
Gerdeen, J.C.et al. (1977)Design Criteria for Roof Bolting Plans Using Fully Resin-Grouted Nontensioned Bolts to Reinforce Bedded Mine Roof, USBM, Contract No. JO366004, Michigan Technological University, Vol. IV.
Haas, C.J. (1975) Shear resistance of rock bolts, Presented at104th Annual Meeting of American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers, February, 32–40.
Haas, C.J.et al. (1978)An Investigation of the Interaction of Rock and Types of Rock Bolts for Selected Loading Conditions, prepared for USBM, University of Missouri-Rolla, May.
Hawkes, J.M. and Evans, R.H. (1951) Bond stresses in reinforced concrete columns and beams,Structural Engineering 29, 323–8.
Howe, B.J. (1968)Roof Bolt Anchorage in Mudstone, Australian Coal Industry Research Laboratories Ltd, RR 68-1, January.
Karabin, G.J. and Debevec, W.J. (1978)Comparative Evaluation of Conventional and Resin Bolting Systems, US Department of Interior, MESA, IR 1033.
Karabin, G.J. and Hoch, M.T. (1979)An Operational Analysis of Point Resin-Anchored Bolting Systems, MESA, IR 1100.
Kmetz, W.J. (1970) Roof trusses support problem strata,Coal Age, January, 64–8.
Lang, T.A. (1958) Rock bolting speeds Snowy Mountains project,Civil Engineering, February, pp. 40–2.
Lang, T.A. (1961) Theory and practice of rock bolting,Transactions of the AIME 220, 333–48.
Lang, T.A., Bischoff, J.A. and Wagner, P.L. (1979)A Program Plan for Determining Optimum Roof Bolt Tension, Theory and Application of Rock Reinforcement Systems in Coal Mines, Leeds, Hill, and Jewett, Inc., a contract report submitted to US Bureau of Mines, March, Vol. 1, pp. 255.
McCormick, J.A.et al. (1974) Survey of resin bolting installations,Mining Congress Journal, July, pp. 28–32.
Mahyera, A.et al. (1981) Controlled thrust and torque placement of mechanical anchor bolts and their relationship to improved roof control,Proceeding of the 1st Conference on Ground Control in Mining, West Virginia University, pp. 98–105.
Mitchell, D.W. and Debevec, W.J. (1970) A new look at roof bolts,Coal Mining and Processing, February, pp. 34–6.
Moss, K.J. (1971) Rock bolts in current use in Australia,Symposium on Rock Bolting, February, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Illawarra Branch, Paper No. 5.
Nitzche, R.M. (1976) Installation induced stresses for grouted rock bolts,International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mineral Sciences, Geomechanics Abstracts 13, 17–24.
Norris, C. and Yearby, M. (1980)The Choice of Support Available, The Australian IMM, Illawarra Branch, Roof Support Colloquium, September, pp. 4-1–4-17.
Obert, L. and Duvall, W.I. (1967)Rock Mechanics and the Design of Structures in Rock, Wiley, New York, pp. 612–38.
Panek, L.A. (1956a)Theory of Model Testing as Applied to Roof Bolting, USBM, RI 5154.
Panek, L.A. (1956b)Design of Bolting Systems to Reinforce Bedded Mine Roof, USBM, RI 5155.
Panek, L.A. (1956c)Principles of Reinforcing Bedded Mine Roof with Bolts, USBM, RI 5156.
Panek, L.A. (1961) Use of vertical roof bolts to reinforce an arbitrary sequence of beds,Proceedings of the International Symposium on Mining Research, University of Missouri, Vol. 2, pp. 499–508.
Panek, L.A. (1962a)The Effects of Suspension in Bolting Bedded Mine Roof, USBM, RI 6138.
Panek, L.A. (1962b)The Combined Effects of Friction and Suspension in Bolting Bedded Mine Roof, USBM, RI 6139.
Panek, L.A. (1964) Design for bolting stratified roof,Transactions of the Society of Mining Engineers, AIME, June, pp. 113–9.
Panek, L.A. and McCormick, J.A. (1973) Roof/rock bolting, inSME Mining Engineering Handbook (edited by A.B. Cummings and I.A. Given), AIME, New York, pp. 13–125 to 13–134.
Parson, E.W. and Osen, L. (1969)Load Loss from Rock-Bolt Anchor Creep, USBM, RI 7220.
Peerlkamp, P. and Watt, K.L. (1971) Chemicals for bolt anchorages,Symposium on Rock Bolting, February, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Illawarra Branch, Paper No. 3.
Peng, S.S. (1978)Coal Mine Ground Control, John Wiley, New York, pp. 130–73.
Peng, S.S. and Tang, D.H. (1983) unpublished report.
Radcliffe, D.E. and Stateham, R.E. (1980)Stress Distribution Around Resin-Grouted Bolts, USBM RI 8440.
Sawyer, S.G.et al. (1976)Investigation of the Effects of Thrust and Hardened Washer on the Installed Tension of a Roof Bolt, US MSHA, IR 1031.
Schach, R., Garshol, K. and Heltzen, A.M. (1979)Rock Bolting, A Practical Handbook, Norwegian Institute of Rock Blasting Techniques, Pergamon Press, New York.
Scott, J.J. (1977) Friction rock stabilizers — a new rock reinforcement method, presented at the1977 SME-AIME Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia.
Scott, J.J. (1981) A new combination friction-suspension support system, Scott cable slings,1st Conference on Ground Control in Mining, West Virginia University, pp. 132–6.
Serbousek, M.O. and Bolstad, D.D. (1981) Inorganic cement grouted bolt system,Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Ground Control in Mining, West Virginia University, pp. 137–40.
Shutack, J.B. and Hanna, N.E. (1968)Evaluation of the Explosive-Anchored Rock Bolt, US Bureau of Mines, RI 7163.
Sinou, P. and Dejean, M. (1980) Types of rods for strata bolting, accessories and setting equipment, FrenchRock Bolting, Industrie Minérale, pp. 12–22.
Smelser, T.W., Dar, S.M., Pettibone, H.C. and Bolstad, D.D. (1982)Modeling and Field Verification of Roof-Bolt Systems, presented at the SME-AIME Annual Meeting, Dallas, Texas, February.
Stateham, R.M. (1982) Roof bolt bond tester; a device for non-destructive testing of grouted bolts,Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Ground Control in Mining, West Virginia University, pp. 183–7.
Stefanko, R. (1961)Underground Stress Instrumentation and Support Evaluation, PhD Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University.
Stefanko, R. and Choi, D.S. (1970) Anchorage performance in rock bolting,Transactions of the Society of Mining Engineers 247, March, 88–92.
Stefanko, R. and de la Cruz, R.V. (1964) Mechanism of load loss in roof bolts,Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Rock Mechanics, University of Missouri-Rolla, October, pp. 293–309.
Tincelin, E. (1970) Roof-bolting recommendations,Exploration and Exploitation of Mineral Deposits and Mineral Processing, Parley of Co-operation and Industrial Promotion, Sydney, May.
US Government (1969)Coal Mine Health and Safety Act, in Code of Federal Regulations 30, Mineral Resources, revised 1974, pp. 342–9.
Van Ham, F. and Tsur-Lavie, Y. (1970) Reinforcement effect and action of perpendicular and inclined roofbolts in layered rock formations,Proceedings of the 2nd Congress of ISRM, Beograd, Vol. 2, pp. 457–67.
Wade, L.V., Kwitowski, A.J. and Judeikis, J.F. (1977) Investigation of full column resin bolt reinforcement mechanisms,Proceedings of the 6th International Strata Control Conference, Banff, Canada.
Wilding, R.R. and Thomson, M.L. (1981) Development of a resin point anchor,Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Ground Control in Mining, West Virginia University, pp. 141–3.
Worley Roof Bolt (1977) Gulf and Western Industries, Mine Roof Support System.
- Roof bolting in underground mining: a state-of-the-art review
International Journal of Mining Engineering
Volume 2, Issue 1 , pp 1-42
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Rock bolting
- underground mining
- strata control
- rock mechanics
- Industry Sectors