pure and applied geophysics

, Volume 84, Issue 1, pp 161–200

Considerations regarding solar and lunar modulation of geophysical parameters, atmospheric electricity and thunderstorms


  • Ralph Markson
    • Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, Department of Atmospheric ScienceState University of New York

DOI: 10.1007/BF00875467

Cite this article as:
Markson, R. PAGEOPH (1971) 84: 161. doi:10.1007/BF00875467


The basic thesis of this paper is that the proper scope of meteorology should include, besides the earth's atmosphere, the sun's atmosphere (the solar corona), the associated interplanetary magnetic field, and lunar modulation of this environment. Recent advances in space science have enabled us to make direct measurements in this region for the first time. The shape and characteristics of the magnetosphere have been completely redefined during the last ten years from a simple magnetic dipole to the present model with an elongated tail stretched out by the solar wind. The interplanetary magnetic field has been defined with its spiral structure and sectors tied into the solar surface. This provides a magnetic link between the sun and earth. It is probable that extra-terrestrial factors do play a role in regulating weather, although the extent of this influence remains to be determined. Possibly such effects are most significant or easily detectable in the realm of atmospheric electricity. In view of the limitations in our present knowledge of all the variables responsible for regulating weather, it would seem appropriate to pursue the study of extra-terrestrial influences. Such research could lead to a better understanding of atmospheric circulation, precipitation mechanisms and thunderstorms. The field of meteorology which might particularly benefit from such research is long range weather forecasting.

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1971