Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 159–182

Measuring nicotine dependence: A review of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire

Authors

  • Karl -Oiov Fagerstrom
    • Pharmacia Leo Therapeutics
  • Nina G. Schneider
    • Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesUCLA School of Medicine
    • Psychopharmacology UnitVA Medical Center
Article

DOI: 10.1007/BF00846549

Cite this article as:
Fagerstrom, K.-. & Schneider, N.G. J Behav Med (1989) 12: 159. doi:10.1007/BF00846549

Abstract

In the last decade, the importance of nicotine in maintaining smoking and in cessation difficulty has been acknowledged. Consequently, this has led to efforts to measure nicotine dependence. This paper focuses on a widely used, paper-and-pencil test of nicotine dependence- the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ). The findings indicate that the FTQ correlates with other proposed measures of nicotine dependence (carbon monoxide, nicotine, and cotinine levels). The connection between FTQ scores and withdrawal symptoms is weak. In clinic outcome trials, the FTQ predicted success where no pharmacologic treatment was involved, while nicotine replacement appeared to mask the relation between FTQ scores and outcome. However, the FTQ may predict outcome with nicotine replacement as a function of dose. In placebo-controlled, nicotine replacement trials, FTQ scores were related to success by treatment. Problems with the FTQ are described with focus on item difficulties and analyses of the scale.

Key words

nicotine dependence or addictionFagerstrom Tolerance Questionnairetobacco dependencesmoking
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989