Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 205–224

Perceived personal immunity to the consequences of drinking alcohol: The relationship between behavior and perception

  • William B. Hansen
  • Anne E. Raynor
  • Bonnie H. Wolkenstein

DOI: 10.1007/BF00845452

Cite this article as:
Hansen, W.B., Raynor, A.E. & Wolkenstein, B.H. J Behav Med (1991) 14: 205. doi:10.1007/BF00845452


Heavy drinkers, moderate drinkers, light drinkers, and nondrinkers were asked to rate a variety of negative health and social consequences of using alcohol. Subjects made probability ratings for fictional others who were heavy, moderate, or light drinkers or nondrinkers. Subjects also made probability ratings for themselves as hypothetical heavy, moderate, or light drinkers or nondrinkers and for themselves actually. A pattern of perceived personal immunity was found across groups. Subjects rated fictional others and themselves as hypothetical drinkers to be more likely to experience negative consequences than their actual selves. All groups of subjects (heavy, moderate, and light drinkers and abstainers) rated their actual chances of experiencing negative consequences to be approximately equal. In contrast, heavy drinkers saw the effects of drinking for other heavy drinkers as less likely than did subjects who had light or abstinent drinking patterns who rated fictional heavy drinkers. These findings suggest that individuals who drink more tend to deny the potential harm that may result from alcohol consumption. Short-term social consequences were viewed as most likely to occur. Long-term consequences were perceived as least likely to occur.

Key words

denialalcohol consumptionbeliefsperceptionsnegative consequencespersonal immunity

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • William B. Hansen
    • 1
  • Anne E. Raynor
    • 2
  • Bonnie H. Wolkenstein
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Public Health Sciences, Bowman Gray School of MedicineWake Forest UniversityWinston-Salem
  2. 2.Diabetes Education Center of Arizona, Inc.Arizona
  3. 3.University of Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles