The relative importance of dispositional optimism and control appraisals in quality of life after coronary artery bypass surgery
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Similar mechanisms have been proposed to explain the stress-buffering effects of both dispositional optimism and perceived control. Yet dispositional optimism as a personal resource should function independently of situational control appraisals. To evaluate the unique and additive contributions to adaptation of control appraisals and optimism, we followed 49 individuals scheduled for coronary artery bypass surgery. One month before surgery dispositional optimism was associated with neither health locus of control nor specific expectancies about the outcomes of surgery. Dispositional optimism, however, was associated with perceived control over the course of the illness and with quality of life appraisals. Although presurgery optimism predicted life quality 8 months after surgery, this was not the case when general and specific control appraisals and specific expectancies were included in the prediction. These findings are discussed as they relate to current conceptions of trait optimism.
Supplementary Material (0)
- Affleck, G., Tennen, H., and Gershman, K. (1985). Cognitive adaptations to high risk infants: The search for meaning, mastery, and protection from future harm.Am. J. Ment. Defic. 89: 653–656.
- Affleck, G., Tennen, H., Croog, S., and Levine, S. (1987a). Causal attribution, perceived control and recovery from a heart attack.J. Soc. Clin. Psychol. 5: 339–355.
- Affleck, G., Tennen, H., Pfeiffer, C., and Fifield, J. (1987b). Appraisals of control and predictability in adapting to a chronic disease.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 53: 273–279.
- Affleck, G., Tennen, H., and Rowe, J. (1991).Infants in Crisis: How Parents Cope with Newborn Intensive Care and Its Aftermath, Springer-Verlag, New York.
- Anderson, C. R. (1977). Locus of control, coping behaviors, and performance in a stress setting: A longitudinal study.J. Appl. Psychol. 62: 446–451.
- Anderson, E. A. (1987). Preoperative preparation for cardiac surgery facilitates recovery, reduces psychological distress, and reduces the incidence of acute postoperative hypertension.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 55: 513–520.
- Anderson, K. O., and Masur, F. T. (1983). Psychological preparation for invasive medical and dental procedures.J. Behav. Med. 6: 1–40.
- Anesheusel, C. S., Frerichs, R. R., and Huba, G. J. (1984). Depression and physical illness: A multiwave nonrecursive causal model.J. Health Soc. Behav. 25: 350–371.
- Bandura, A.Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
- Bar-on, D., and Crystal, N. (1981). Cognitive patterns mediate rehabilitation of patients after first MI.World Congress on Cardiac Rehabilitation: Abstracts of Free Communications, Jerusalem.
- Burger, J. (1989). Negative reactions to increases in perceived control.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 56: 246–256.
- Califf, R. M., Harrell, F. E., Lee, K. L., Rankin, J. S., Hlatky, M. A., Mark, D. B., Jones, R. H., Muhlbaier, L. H., Oldham, H. N., and Pryor, D. B. (1989). The evolution of medical and surgical therapy for coronary artery disease: A 15-year perspective.JAMA 261: 2077–2086.
- Campbell, D. T., and Fiske, D. D. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validity by the mullitrait-multimethod matrix.Psychol. Bull. 56: 81–105.
- Carver, C. S., and Gaines, J. G. (1987). Optimism, pessimism, and postpartum depression.Cognitv. Ther. Res. 11: 449–462.
- Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., and Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically-based approach.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 56: 267–283.
- Criteria Committee of the New York Heart Association (1964).Diseases of the Heart and Blood Vessels: Nomenclature and Criteria for Diagnosis, Little, Brown, Boston.
- Croog, S., and Levine, S. (1982).Life After a Heart Attack: Social and Psychological Factors Eight years Later, Human Sciences Press, New York.
- Feinleib, M. (1984). The magnitude and nature of the decrease in coronary disease mortality rate.Am. J. Cardiol. 54: 26–66.
- Folkman, S. (1984). Personal control over stress and coping processes: A theoretical analysis.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 46: 839–852.
- Harris, P. J., Harrell, F. E., Lee, K. L., Behar, V. S., and Rosati, R. A. (1979). Survival in medically treated coronary artery disease.Circulation 60: 1259–1269.
- Kaplan, R. (1988). Health-related quality of life in cardiovascular disease.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 56: 382–392.
- Klinger, E. (1975). Consequences of commitment to and disengagement from incentives.Psychol. Rev. 82: 1–25.
- Krantz, D., and Deckel, A. (1983). Coping with coronary heart disease and stroke. In Burish, T., and Bradley, L. (eds.),Coping with Chronic Disases: Research and Applications, Academic Press, New York, pp. 85–111.
- Langer, E., and Rodin, J. (1976). The effects of choice and enhanced personal responsibility: A field experiment in an institutional setting.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 34: 191–198.
- Lefcourt, H., Davidson-Katz, K. (1991). Locus of control and health. In Snyder, C. R., and Forsyth, D. R. (eds.),Handbook of Social and Clinical Psychology: The Health Perspective, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY, pp. 246–266.
- Litt, M. D., Tennen, H., Affleck, G., and Klock, S. (1992). Coping and cognitive factors in adaptation to in-vitro fertilization failure.J. Behav. Med. 15: 171–187.
- Maroto, J. J., Shepperd, J. A., and Pbert, L. A. (1992). Dispositional optimism as a predictor of behavior changes among cardiac patients (Unpublished manuscript, College of the Holy Cross).).
- Miller, S. (1980). Why having control reduces stress: If I can stop the roller coaster, I don't want to get off. In Garber, J., and Seligman, M. E. P. (eds.),Human Helplessness: Theory and Applications, Academic Press, New York, pp. 71–95.
- Nicassio, P., Wallston, K., Callahan, L., Herbert, M., and Pincus, T. (1985). The measurement of helplessness in rheumatoid arthritis: The development of the Arthritis Helplessness Index.J. Rheumatol. 12: 462–467.
- Niles, N. W., Vander Salm, T. J., and Cutler, B. S. (1980). Return to work after coronary artery bypass operation.J. Thorac. Cardiovas. Surg. 79: 916–921.
- Pagel, M., Becker, J., and Coppel, D. (1985). Loss of control, self-blame, and depression: An investigation of spouse caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients.J. Abn. Psychol., 94, 169–182.
- Radley, A., Green, R. (1985). Styles of adjustment to coronary graft surgery.Soc. Sci. Med. 20: 461–472.
- Rotter, J. B. (1954).Social Learning and Clinical Psychology, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
- Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement.Psychol. Monogr. Gen. Appl. 80(1: No. 609).
- Scheier, M. F., and Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies.Health Psychol. 4: 219–247.
- Scheier, M. F., and Carver, C. S. (1987). Dispositional optimism and well-being: The influence of generalized outcome expectancies on health.J. Personal. 55: 169–210.
- Scheier, M. F., Weintraub, J. K., and Carver, C. S. (1986). Coping with stress: Divergent strategies of optimists and pessimists.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 51: 1257–1264.
- Scheier, M. F., Matthews, K. A., Owens, J. F., Magovern, G. J., Lefebvre, R. C., Abbott, R. A., and Carver, C. S. (1989). Dispositional optimism and recovery from coronary artery bypass surgery: The beneficial effects on physical and psychological well-being.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 57: 1024–1040.
- Schultz, R., and Decker, S. (1985). Long-term adjustment to physical disability: The role of social support, perceived control, and self-blame.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 48: 1162–1172.
- Seligman, M. E. P. (1975).Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death, Freeman, San Francisco.
- Sergeant, P., LeSaffre, E., Flameng, W., and Suy, R. (1986). How predictable is work resumption after aortocoronary bypass surgery?Acta Cardiol. 41: 41–52.
- Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., Yoshinobu, L. Gibb, J., Langelle, C., and Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 60: 570–585.
- Smith, C. (1991). The self, appraisal, and coping. In Snyder, C. R., and Forsyth, D. R. (eds.),Handbook of Social and Clinical Psychology: The Health Perspective, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.
- Smith, T., Pope, M., Rhodewalt, F., and Poulton, J. (1989). Optimism, neuroticism, coping, and symptom reports: An alternative interpretation of the Life Orientation Test.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 56: 640–648.
- Strack, S., Carver, C. S., and Blaney, P. H. (1987). Predicting successful completion of an aftercare program following treatment for alcoholism: The role of dispositional optimism.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 53: 579–584.
- Strentz, T., and Auerbach, S. M. (1988). Adjustment to the stress of stimulated captivity: Effects of emotion-focused versus problem-focused preparation on hostages differing in locus of control.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 55: 652–660.
- Strickland, B. R. (1978). Internal-external expectancies and health-related behaviors.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 46: 1192–1211.
- Taylor, S. (1983). Adjustment to threatening events: A theory of cognitive adaptation.Am. Psychol. 388: 624–630.
- Taylor, S. E., Lichtman, R., and Wood, J. (1984). Attributions, beliefs about control, and adjustment of breast cancer.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 46: 489–502.
- Tennen, H., and Affleck, G. (1987). The costs and benefits of optimistic explanations and dispositional optimism.J. Personal. 55: 377–393.
- Tennen, H., Affleck, G., and Gershman, K. (1986). Self-blame in parents of infants with perinatal complications. The role of self-protective motives.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 50: 690–696.
- Tennen, H., Affleck, G., and Mendola, R. (1991). Coping with smell and teaste disorders. In Getchell, T., Doty, R., Bartoshuk, L., and Snow, J. (eds.),Smell and Taste in Health and Disease, Raven Press, New York, pp. 787–802.
- Thompson, S. (1981). Will it hurt less if I can control it? A complex answer to a simple question.Psychol. Bull. 90: 89–101.
- Wallston, K., and Wallston, B. (1978). Development of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales.Health Educ. Monogr. 6: 160–170.
- Watson, D., Clark, L. A., and Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scale.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 54: 1063–1070.
- Westbrook, M., Gething, B., and Bradbury, B. (1987). Beliefs in ability to control chronic illness: Associated evaluations and medical experiences.Austral. Psychol. 22: 203–218.
About this Article
- The relative importance of dispositional optimism and control appraisals in quality of life after coronary artery bypass surgery
Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Volume 16, Issue 1 , pp 25-43
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- coronary bypass surgery
- quality of life
- Author Affiliations
- 1. St. Joseph's Pain Therapy Center, 28801, Ashville, North Carolina
- 2. Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut Health Center, 06030, Farmington, Connecticut
- 3. University of Massachusetts Medical Center, 02125, Boston, Massachusetts