The anomalous component of cosmic rays in the 3-D heliosphere
- Cite this article as:
- Klecker, B. Space Sci Rev (1995) 72: 419. doi:10.1007/BF00768815
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More than 20 years ago, in 1972, anomalous flux increases of helium and heavy ions were discovered during solar quiet times. These flux increases in the energy range<50 MeV/nucleon showed peculiar elemental abundances and energy spectra, e.g. a C/O ratio≤0.1 around 10 MeV/nucleon, different from the abundances of solar energetic particles and galactic cosmic rays. Since then, this “anomalous” cosmic ray component (ACR) has been studied extensively and at least six elements have been found (He,N,O,Ne,Ar,C) whose energy spectra show anomalous increases above the quiet time solar and galactic energetic particle spectrum. There have been a number of models proposed to explain the ACR component. The presently most plausible theory for the origin of ACR ions identifies neutral interstellar gas as the source material. After penetration into the inner heliosphere, the neutral particles are ionized by solar UV radiation and by charge exchange reactions with the solar wind protons. After ionization, the now singly charged ions are picked up by the interplanetary magnetic field and are then convected with the solar wind to the outer solar system. There, the ions are accelerated to high energies, possibly at the solar wind termination shock, and then propagate back into the inner heliosphere. A unique prediction of this model is that ACR ions should be singly ionized. Meanwhile, several predictions of this model have been verified, e.g. low energy pick-up ions have been detected and the single charge of ACR ions in the energy range at ≈ MeV/nucleon has been observed. However, some important aspects such as, for example, the importance of drift effects for the acceleration and propagation process and the location of the acceleration site are still under debate. In this paper the present status of experimental and theoretical results on the ACR component are reviewed and constraints on the acceleration process derived from the newly available ACR ionic charge measurements will be presented. Possible new constraints provided by correlative measurements at high and low latitudes during the upcoming solar pole passes of the ULYSSES spacecraft in 1994 and 1995 will be discussed.