, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 471-485

Transport of calcium by mitochondria

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The identification of intramitochondrial free calcium ([Ca2+ m) as a primary metabolic mediator [see Hansford (this volume) and Gunter, T. E., Gunter, K. K., Sheu, S.-S., and Gavin, C. E. (1994)Am. J. Physiol. 267, C313–C339, for reviews] has emphasized the importance of understanding the characteristics of those mechanisms that control [Ca2+]m. In this review, we attempt to update the descriptions of the mechanisms that mediate the transport of Ca2+ across the mitochondrial inner membrane, emphasizing the energetics of each mechanism. New concepts within this field are reviewed and some older concepts are discussed more completely than in earlier reviews. The mathematical forms of the membrane potential dependence and concentration dependence of the uniporter are interpolated in such a way as to display the convenience of consideringV max to be an explicit function of the membrane potential. Recent evidence for a transient rapid conductance state of the uniporter is discussed. New evidence concerning the energetics and stoichiometries of both Na+-dependent and Na+-independent efflux mechanisms is reviewed. Explicit mathematical expressions are used to describe the energetics of the system and the kinetics of transport via each Ca2+ transport mechanism.