The effects of chronic treatment (5 mg b.i.d. for 2 days followed by 10 mg b.i.d. for 5 days) with R 58 735 on human memory functions were studied in healthy elderly (age ≥50 years) volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Serial learning of nonsense syllables was better under R 58 735, and relearning 1 week after termination of the treatment was superior to relearning of similar material initially learned under placebo. Free recall of nonsense syllables was significantly better when these were learned under active compound. Proactive inhibition induced by consecutive presentation of word lists was attenuated by R 58 735. Short-term memory functions, retrieval accuracy from semantic memory and unprepared reaction times were unchanged. R 58 735 ameliorated both learning and recall in conditions of age-related mild hypofunction in healthy volunteers. The compound seems to have had positive effects on encoding and consolidation of new material.