Foundations of Physics

, Volume 19, Issue 12, pp 1499-1514

First online:

Evidence for consciousness-related anomalies in random physical systems

  • Dean I. RadinAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, Princeton University
  • , Roger D. NelsonAffiliated withDepartment of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University

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Speculations about the role of consciousness in physical systems are frequently observed in the literature concerned with the interpretation of quantum mechanics. While only three experimental investigations can be found on this topic in physics journals, more than 800 relevant experiments have been reported in the literature of parapsychology. A well-defined body of empirical evidence from this domain was reviewed using meta-analytic techniques to assess methodological quality and overall effect size. Results showed effects conforming to chance expectation in control conditions and unequivocal non-chance effects in experimental conditions. This quantitative literature review agrees with the findings of two earlier reviews, suggesting the existence of some form of consciousness-related anomaly in random physical systems.