Matrix metalloproteinase activity expression in infarcted, noninfarcted and dilated cardiomyopathic human hearts
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- Tyagi, S.C., Campbell, S.E., Reddy, H.K. et al. Mol Cell Biochem (1996) 155: 13. doi:10.1007/BF00714328
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In the normal myocardium matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are present in the latent form. To examine whether MMP are activated following infarction or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), we extracted and measured MMP activity in tissue derived from 7 explanted, failing human hearts due to either previous myocardial infarction (MI) or DCM. MMP activity in infarcted left ventricle (LV), noninfarcted IV and right ventricle (RV) from MI patients, as well as tissue from either ventricle of DCM patients, were compared to the activity of donor heart tissue. SDS-PAGE and dye-binding assays were used to determine total protein concentration, while collagenase activity was measured by SDS-PAGE type substrate gels embedded with type I gelatin (zymography). Accuracy of the zymographic technique was shown for tissue samples as small as 0.05 mg and was comparable to results obtained by a spectrophotometric method.. After normalization for total protein concentration, we found 3 ± 1 % collagenase activity in normal atrial tissue which could be activated to 80–90% by trypsin or plasmin, indicating that collagenase is normally inactive or in a latent form in human heart. In endo- and epimyocardium of infarcted LV on the other hand, collagenase activity was 85–95% and 10–20%, respectively, while 5–10% and 3–5%, respectively, in noninfarcted LV In DCM, collagenolytic activity in the endo and epimyocardium was 75 ± 5 and 35 ± 5% in the LV and 35 ± 7 and 20 ± 5% in the RV, respectively. Thus, in dilated failing human hearts secondary to previous MI or DCM, MMP activity is increased. This is particularly the case within the endomyocardium of the infarcted and noninfarcted portions of either ventricle with MI and in both ventricles in DCM. This suggests that an activation of collagenase throughout the myocardium may contribute to its remodeling that includes ventricular dilatation and wall thinning.