Journal of Comparative Physiology B

, Volume 159, Issue 2, pp 183–193

Effects of incubation temperature on growth and development of embryos ofAlligator mississippiensis

  • D. C. Deeming
  • M. W. J. Ferguson

DOI: 10.1007/BF00691739

Cite this article as:
Deeming, D.C. & Ferguson, M.W.J. J Comp Physiol B (1989) 159: 183. doi:10.1007/BF00691739


Eggs ofAlligator mississippiensis were incubated at 30 °C and 33 °C throughout incubation up to hatching. Every four days several eggs were opened and the albumen, yolk and extra-embryonic fluids removed and weighed. The embryo was removed and fixed prior to being staged, weighted and measured for various morphometric criteria. Development at 33 °C was accelerated compared with 30 °C in terms of yolk and albumen utilization and embryo growth. Significant losses in yolk mass did not occur until stage 22 at 33 °C but occurred at stage 18 at 30 °C. Different patterns in growth were observed in embryos at the two temperatures at similar morphological stages: between stages 18 and 22 embryos at 33 °C were smaller (in mass and length) compared with embryos at 30 °C despite being morphologically similar. The differences in growth and physiology between embryos at 30 °C (females) and 33 °C (males) were dependent on incubation temperature but not sex. Incubation at 33 °C accelerated both growth and development inAlligator; initially morphogenesis was accelerated by the higher temperature but later, growth rate was accelerated.

Key words

CrocodiliansMorphometricsExtra-embryonic fluidsGrowth sex determination

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Deeming
    • 1
  • M. W. J. Ferguson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cell and Structural BiologyUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK