Oxidation of Metals

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 265–276

On the formation of porosity and microchannels in growing scales

  • Per Kofstad

DOI: 10.1007/BF00657061

Cite this article as:
Kofstad, P. Oxid Met (1985) 24: 265. doi:10.1007/BF00657061


It is well known that oxide scales develop porosity and microchannels that permit inward transport of molecular species from the ambient gas even under conditions when there is no evidence of cracking of the scales. It is proposed that such porosity and microchannels develop as a result of grain growth and of plastic deformation (grain-boundary sliding, diffusion creep, etc.) under compressive stresses in the scales. The presence of small amounts of impurities enriched at grain boundaries in the scales may greatly affect deformation and mechanical and transport properties in scales.

Key words

scale growthgrowth stresseshigh-temperature creepdeformationporosity

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Per Kofstad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of OsloBlindern, Oslo 3Norway