, Volume 24, Issue 5-6, pp 265-276

On the formation of porosity and microchannels in growing scales

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Abstract

It is well known that oxide scales develop porosity and microchannels that permit inward transport of molecular species from the ambient gas even under conditions when there is no evidence of cracking of the scales. It is proposed that such porosity and microchannels develop as a result of grain growth and of plastic deformation (grain-boundary sliding, diffusion creep, etc.) under compressive stresses in the scales. The presence of small amounts of impurities enriched at grain boundaries in the scales may greatly affect deformation and mechanical and transport properties in scales.