Journal of comparative physiology

, Volume 125, Issue 4, pp 301–303

Eye closure in toads (Bufo bufo L.) does not produce off responses in retinal on-off ganglion cells: A question of efferent commands

  • H. -W. Borchers
  • J. -P. Ewert

DOI: 10.1007/BF00656864

Cite this article as:
Borchers, H.W. & Ewert, J.P. J. Comp. Physiol. (1978) 125: 301. doi:10.1007/BF00656864


  1. 1.

    There are ganglion cells in the toad's retina which respond to sudden changes in diffuse light levels with bursts of spikes at “on” and “off”.

  2. 2.

    New results from experiments in freely moving unrestrained toadsBufo bufo (L.) with chronically implanted twin micro recording electrodes show that theoff response of these neurons fail to occur if the animal closes its eye completely.

  3. 3.

    The results may indicate efferent inhibition in retinal networks.


Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. -W. Borchers
    • 1
  • J. -P. Ewert
    • 1
  1. 1.Neuro-Ethology and Biocybernetic LaboratoriesUniversity of KasselKasselFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Arbeitsgruppe Neuro-Ethologie und BiokybernetikGesamthochschule KasselKassel-OberzwehrenFederal Republic of Germany