Interrelationships among various measures of upper body strength assessed by different contraction modes

Evidence for a general strength component
  • Tibor Hortobagyi
  • Frank I. Katch
  • Peter F. LaChance
Article

DOI: 10.1007/BF00637387

Cite this article as:
Hortobagyi, T., Katch, F.I. & LaChance, P.F. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. (1989) 58: 749. doi:10.1007/BF00637387

Summary

Two studies were conducted in 83 college men to determine the degree of generality of individual differences in upper body muscular strength assessed by different testing modes. In study 1 (N=43), correlations were computed between four measures of upper body strength using the bench press movement, maximal isokinetic (0.09 rad·s−1), maximal fast (0.126 m·s−1) and slow (0.037 m·s−1) hydraulic, and one repetition maximum (1-RM) free weight bench press (BP). Compared to free weight BP, maximal strength during isokinetic and slow hydraulic BP was ∼29% and ∼8% larger, and fast hydraulic BP strength was ∼63% lower (p<0.05). Simple linear regression of isokinetic BP on 1-RM BP yieldedr=0.79, error of prediction (SE)=12%, and generality=81%. The corresponding averaged values for the regression of slow and fast hydraulic BP on free weight 1-RM BP werer=0.77, SE=13.5%, and generality=84%. In Study 2 (N=40), testing included maximal isokinetic concentric and eccentric arm flexion and extension at 0.524, 1.570, and 2.094 rad·s−1. The ratio of concentric to eccentric torque at the 3 speeds averaged 0.68 (flexion) and 0.70 (extension), and eccentric torques were 32% and 30% greater than concentric torques (p<0.05). The linear regression between concentric vs. eccentric flexion and extension torques at the three velocities yielded an averager=0.80, SE=13.7%, and generality=73%. The findings from both studies provide evidence for generality of concentric muscle forces obtained during isokinetic, hydraulic, and 1-RM BP movement, and concentric and eccentric torque measured at 3 velocities for simple arm flexion and extension. Thus, individuals who performed well (or poorly) on one type of upper body strength test were able to achieve the same relative level of performance when tested by different contraction modes.

Key words

Muscular strength Isokinetic Concentric Eccentric Free weight Dynamometry 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tibor Hortobagyi
    • 1
  • Frank I. Katch
    • 1
  • Peter F. LaChance
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Exercise ScienceUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstUSA