, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 59-111


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This paper represents the development and application of ideas originating in collaborative work with Charles Fillmore and Mary Catherine O'Connor. Amy Dahlstrom, Tom Larsen and Barry Schein provided much useful advice at that time.
Part or all of the content of the paper has benefitted from discussion with a large number of people, including Barbara Abbott, Daniel Andler, Dominique Bassano, George Bergman, Dwight Bolinger, Claudia Brugman, Regina Bustamante, Christian Champaud, David Dowty, Oswald Ducrot, Michele Emanatian, Gilles Fauconnier, Hana Filip, Charles Fillmore, Laurence Horn, Edward Keenan, George Lakoff, Knud Lambrecht, John Lawler, Kiki Nikiforidou, Mary Catherine O'Connor, Barbara Partee, François Recanati, Paul Schachter, Christophe Schwartze, Emmanuel Schegloff, Dan Sperber, Anna Szabolcsi, Leonard Talmy, James Watters, Robert Wilensky, Karl Zimmer, and Richard Zuber. My apologies to any whose names I have inadvertently omitted.
I have certainly received more good advice than I was able or willing to take.