European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 161–168

Quantitation of phenobarbital and its main metabolites in human urine


  • N. Kållberg
    • The Karolinska Pharmacy
  • S. Agurell
    • The Karolinska Pharmacy
  • Ö. Ericsson
    • Dept. of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of Uppsala
  • E. Bucht
    • Dept. of Clinical PharmacologyKarolinska Hospital
  • B. Jalling
    • Dept. of Clinical PharmacologyKarolinska Hospital
  • L. O. Boréus
    • Dept. of Clinical PharmacologyKarolinska Hospital

DOI: 10.1007/BF00614013

Cite this article as:
Kållberg, N., Agurell, S., Ericsson, Ö. et al. Eur J Clin Pharmacol (1975) 9: 161. doi:10.1007/BF00614013


A method for the quantitative determination of phenobarbital and free and conjugatedp-hydroxyphenobarbital in urine samples is described. The method includes initial extraction, purification on a small chromatographic column and finally determination by gas chromatography. The barbituric acids are methylated by trimethylanilinium hydroxide which serves as a “flash heater” methylating agent. The conjugate ofp-hydroxyphenobarbital, which appears to be a glucuronide, is hydrolysed with hydrochloric acid.

Key words

Conjugate-cleavagedrug metabolismgas chromatographyphenobarbitalurinary excretion
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© Springer-Verlag 1975