, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 159-177

Seismic effects from major basin formations on the moon and mercury

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Abstract

Grooved and hilly terrains occur at the antipode of major basins on the Moon (Imbrium, Orientale) and Mercury (Caloris). Such terrains may represent extensive landslides and surface disruption produced by impact-generatedP-waves and antipodal convergence of surface waves. Order-of-magnitude calculations for an Imbrium-size impact (1034 erg) on the Moon indicateP-wave-induced surface displacements of 10 m at the basin antipode that would arrive prior to secondary ejecta. Comparable surface waves would arrive subsequent to secondary ejecta impacts beyond 103 km and would increase in magnitude as they converge at the antipode. Other seismically induced surface features include: subdued, furrowed crater walls produced by landslides and concomitant secondary impacts; emplacement and leveling of light plains units owing to seismically induced ‘fluidization’ of slide material; knobby, pitted terrain around old basins from enhancement of seismic waves in ancient ejecta blankets; and perhaps the production and enhancement of deep-seated fractures that led to the concentration of farside lunar maria in the Apollo-Ingenii region.