Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 519–527

Electrochemical codeposition of inert particles in a metallic matrix

  • A. Hovestad
  • L. J. J. Janssen
Review

DOI: 10.1007/BF00573209

Cite this article as:
Hovestad, A. & Janssen, L.J.J. J Appl Electrochem (1995) 25: 519. doi:10.1007/BF00573209

Abstract

A survey on electrochemical codeposition of inert particles in a metallic matrix is given. Particles held in suspension in an electroplating bath are codeposited with the metal during electrodeposition. The particles used are inert to the bath and can be of different types, that is, pure metals, ceramics or organic materials. Combining this variety of types of particles with the different electrodeposited metals, electrochemical codeposition enables the production of a large range of composite materials with unique properties. Many experimental factors were found to influence the codeposition process, which led to some understanding of the mechanism. Models to predict the codeposition rate were developed, but were only partly successful.

List of symbols

A

constant in Tafel equation for metal deposition (V−1)

B, B1, B2

constants in Tafel equation for particle deposition (V−1)

C,C0

concentration in bulk and at the cathode surface, respectively (mol m−3)

C*

number of ions or particles per unit volume in the bulk bath (m−3)

Co

dimensionless constant

CzK

binomial constant

Dm

double layer dimensionless number

F

Faraday's constant (C mol−1)

g

acceleration due to gravity constant (m s−2)

Gq

particle embedment dimensionless number

H

hydrodynamic coefficient

i

current density (A m−2)

i0

exchange current density (A m−2)

itr

transition current density (A m−2)

k

amount of adsorbed ions on particle that need to be reduced

k*

Langmuir adsorption constant

k1, k2, k3

rate constants for particle deposition (m4 mol−1 s−1)

K

amount of ions adsorbed on a particle

M

molecular weight (kg mol−1)

n

valence of electrodeposited metal

N

number of ions or particles crossing the diffusion layer per unit time and surface area (s−1 m−2)

pi

probability for an ion to be reduced

P

probability for a particle to become incorporated

rp

particle radius (m)

Re

Reynolds number

Sh

modified Sherwood number

Sx

dimensionless number for bath particle concentration

t

time (s)

v0

constant for particle deposition (m s−1)

V

deposition rate (m s−1)

W

weight (kg)

Greek letters

α

measure of the interaction between free and adsorbed ions due to current density

β

volume percent of embedded particles

δ

diffusion layer thickness (m)

ζ

ζ-potential (V)

ϑ

strong adsorption coverage

v

solution viscosity (kg m−1 s−1)

η

overvoltage (V)

Γ

current efficiency

ρ

density (kg m−3)

σ

loose adsorption coverage

Subscripts

e

solution

m

metal

p

particle hydrogen

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Hovestad
    • 1
  • L. J. J. Janssen
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Chemical EngineeringEindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands