Environmental and Ecological Statistics

, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp 227–245

Identifying extremely large values using composite sample data

  • S. D. Gore
  • G. P. Patil

DOI: 10.1007/BF00571394

Cite this article as:
Gore, S.D. & Patil, G.P. Environ Ecol Stat (1994) 1: 227. doi:10.1007/BF00571394


Quantifying a composite sample results in a loss of information on the values of the constituent individual samples. As a consequence of this information loss, it is impossible to identify individual samples having large values, based on composite sample measurements alone. However, under certain circumstances, it is possible to identify individual samples having large values without exhaustively measuring all individual samples. In addition to composite sample measurements, a few additional measurements on carefully selected individual samples are sufficient to identify the individual samples having large values. In this paper, we present a statistical method to recover extremely large individual sample values using composite sample measurements. An application to site characterization is used to illustrate the method.


Compliance monitoringcomposite sampleextreme valueshot-spotsobservational economyprecisionretestingsite characterization

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. D. Gore
    • 1
  • G. P. Patil
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Statistical Ecology and Environmental Statistics, Department of StatisticsThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA