We develop the non-parametric maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of the full Mbh capture-recapture model which utilizes both initial capture and recapture data and permits both heterogeneity (h) between animals and behavioural (b) response to capture. Our MLE procedure utilizes non-parametric maximum likelihood estimation of mixture distributions (Lindsay, 1983; Lindsay and Roeder, 1992) and the EM algorithm (Dempsteret al., 1977). Our MLE estimate provides the first non-parametric estimate of the bivariate capture-recapture distribution.
Since non-parametric maximum likelihood estimation exists for submodels Mh (allowing heterogeneity only), Mb (allowing behavioural response only) and M0 (allowing no changes), we develop maximum likelihood-based model selection, specifically the Akaike information criterion (AIC) (Akaike, 1973). The AIC procedure does well in detecting behavioural response but has difficulty in detecting heterogeneity.
Bivariate distributionbootstrapEM algorithmmixture distribution