Floor-fractured lunar craters
- Peter H. Schultz
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Numerous lunar craters (206 examples, mean diameter = 40km) contain pronounced floor rilles (fractures) and evidence for volcanic processes. Seven morphologic classes have been defined according to floor depth and the appearance of the floor, wall, and rim zones. Such craters containing central peaks exhibit peak heights (approximately 1km) comparable to those within well-preserved impact craters but exhibit smaller rim-peak elevation differences (generally 0–1.5km) than those (2.4km) within impact craters. In addition, the morphology, spatial distribution, and floor elevation data reveal a probable genetic association with the maria and suggest that a large number of floor-fractured craters represent pre-mare impact craters whose floors have been lifted tectonically and modified volcanically during the epochs of mare flooding. Floor uplift is envisioned as floating on an intruded sill, and estimates of the buoyed floor thickness are consistent with the inferred depth of brecciation beneath impact craters, a zone interpreted as a trap for the intruding magma. The derived model of crater modification accounts for (1) the large differences in affected crater size and age; (2) the small peak-rim elevation differences; (3) remnant central peaks within mare-flooded craters and ringed plains; (4) ridged and flat-topped rim profiles of heavily modified craters and ringed plains; and (5) the absence of positive gravity anomalies in most floor-fractured craters and some large mare-filled craters. One of the seven morphologic classes, however, displays a significantly smaller mean size, larger distances from the maria, and distinctive morphology relative to the other six classes. The distinctive morphology is attributed, in part, to the relatively small size of the affected crater, but certain members of this class represent a style of volcanism unrelated to the maria - perhaps triggered by the last major basin-forming impacts.
- Baldwin, R. B.: 1963,The Measure of the Moon, University of Chicago Press. 488p
- Brennan, W. J.: 1975, ‘Modification of Premare Impact Craters by Volcanism and Tectonism’,The Moon 12, 449–461.
- Cameron, W. S. and Padgett, J. L.: 1974, ‘Possible Lunar Ring Dikes’,The Moon 9, 249–294.
- Daneš, Z. F.: 1965, ‘Rebound Processes in Large Craters’, InAstrogeologic Studies, pp. 81–100, U.S. Geol. Survey open file ann. prog. rept., pt. A.
- De Hon, R.: 1971, ‘Cauldron Subsidence in Lunar Craters Ritter and Sabine’,J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5712–5718.
- Dence, M. R.: 1971, ‘Impact Melts’,J. Geophys Res. 76, 5552–5565.
- Gault, D. E., Quaide, W. L., and Oberbeck, V. R.: 1968, ‘Impact Cratering Mechanics and Structures’, InShock Metamorphism of Natural Materials, p. 87–99. B. French and N. Short (eds). Mono Book Corp., Baltimore. 644p.
- Greely, R.: 1975, ‘A Model for the Emplacement of Lunar Basin-Filling Basalts’,Lunar Science VI, 309–310. Lunar Science Institute, Houston.
- Mason, R., Guest, J. E., and Cooke, G. N.: 1975, ‘An Imbrium Pattern of Grabens on the Moon’,Proc. Geol. Assoc. (in press).
- Masursky, H.: 1964, ‘A Preliminary Report on the Role of Isostastic Rebound in the Geologic Development of Lunar Crater Ptolemaeus’, InAstrogeologic Studies, pp. 103–134, U.S. Geol. Survey open file ann. prog. rept., pt A.
- Moore, H. J., Hodges, C. A., and Scott, D. H.: 1974, ‘Multiringed Basins — Illustrated by Orientale and Associated Features’, InProc. Fifth Lunar Sci. Conf., Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta, Suppl. 5, Vol. 1, pp. 71–100. Pergamon.
- Muller, P. M. and Sjogren, W. L.: 1968, ‘Mascons: Lunar Mass Concentrations’,Science 161, 680–684.
- Quaide, W. L., Gault, D. E., and Schmidt, R. A.: 1965, ‘Gravitative Effects on Lunar Impact Structures’, InGeological Problems in Lunar Research, pp. 563–572, Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci.123.
- Pike, R. J.: 1968, ‘Meteoritic Origin and Consequent Endogenic Modification of Large Lunar Craters — A Study in Analytical Geomorphology’, Ph. D. thesis, University of Michigan, 404p.
- Schultz, P. H.: 1972, ‘A Preliminary Morphologic Study of Lunar Surface Features’, Ph.D. thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 967p.
- Schultz, P. H.: 1974, ‘Floor-fractured Lunar Craters’,Lunar Science V, 681–683. Lunar Science Institute, Houston.
- Schultz, P. H.: 1976,Moon Morphology, University of Texas Press, Austin.
- Schultz, P. H. and Gault, D. E.: 1975, ‘Seismic Effects from Major Basin Formation on the Moon and Mercury’,The Moon,12, 159–177.
- Schultz, P. H., Manley, W. D., Jr., and Ingerson, F. E.: 1973, ‘Comparison of Lunar and Martian Crater Floors (abs.)’,Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 54, 1127.
- Sjogren, W. L. and Wollenhaupt, W. R.: 1973, ‘Gravity: Mare Humorum’,The Moon 8, 25–32.
- Sjogren, W. L. and Wollenhaupt, W. R.: 1975, ‘Lunar Maria Figure’,Lunar Science VI, Lunar Science Institute, Houston.
- Sjogren, W. L., Muller, P. M., and Wollenhaupt, W. R.: 1972, ‘S-Band Transponder Experiment’, InApollo 16 Preliminary Science Report, pp. 24:1–24:7. NASA SP-315.
- Sjogren, W. L., Wimberly, R. W., and Wollenhaupt, W. R.: 1974, ‘Lunar Gravity via the Apollo 15 and 16 Subsatellites’,The Moon,9, 115–128.
- Smith, R. L. and Bailey, R. A.: 1968, ‘Resurgent Cauldrons’, In R. R. Coats, R. L. Hay, and C. A. Anderson (eds.),Studies in Volcanology, pp. 613–662, Geol. Soc. Amer. Mem. 116.
- Whitford-Stark, J. L.: 1974, ‘Internal Origin for Lunar Rilled Craters and the Maria?’,Nature,248, 573–575.
- Wood, C. A.: 1974, ‘External Origin for Lunar Rilled Craters and Mare Basins’,Nature 251, 166.
- Young, R. A.: 1972, ‘Lunar Volcanism: Fracture Patterns and Rilles in Marginal Premare Craters’, InApollo 16 Preliminary Science Report, pp. 29 : 89–29 : 90. NASA SP-315.
- Floor-fractured lunar craters
Volume 15, Issue 3-4 , pp 241-273
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Peter H. Schultz (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Space Science Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, USA